Text Size:



“When it happens to you or your child, the risks are 100%”

Published by the National Vaccine Information Center
Barbara Loe Fisher, Editor

Special Report  Summer 2000

Autism and Vaccines: 
A New Look at an Old Story

Published by The National Vaccine Information Center
Summer 2000


Adams JM, Brown WJ, Eberle ED, Verity A. 1974. Vaccinia virus implicated in diffuse demyelinating disease. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine: 143: 799-803. 

Adams JM, Brown WJ, Eberle ED, Vorhy A. 1973. Neuromyelitis optica: severe demyelination occurring years after primary smallpox vaccination. (Presented at the 3rd National Symposium of Neuropathology, Bucharest, September 20-22, 1972.) 

Alderslade R, Bellman MH, Rawson NSB, Ross EM, Miller DL. 1981. The National Childhood Encephalopathy Study: a report on 1000 cases of serious neurological disorders in infants and young children from the NCES research team. In: Whooping Cough: Reports from the Committee on the Safety of Medicines and the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation. Department of Health and Social Security. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Alfrey AC, LeGendre GR, Kaehny WD. 1976. The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 294: 184-188.

American Academy of Pediatrics. 1944. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases: Pertussis. Evanston, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.

Banks WA, Kastin AJ. 1989. Aluminum-induced neurotoxicity: alterations in membrane function at the blood-brain barrier. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 13: 47-53.

Berkman N, Benzarti T, Dhaoul LR, Mouly P. 1996. Bilateral neuro-papillitis after hepatitis B vaccination (letter). Presse Med 25: 1301.

Berg JM. 1958. Neurological complications of pertussis immunization. British Medical Journal 2:24-27.

Boris M, Mandel FS. 1994. Foods and additives are common causes of the attention deficit hyperactive disorder in children. Annals of Allergy 72: 462-468.

Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf RG et al, eds. 1987. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Brody M, Sorley RG. 1947. Neurologic complications following the administration of pertussis vaccine. New York State Journal of Medicine 47: 1910-1017.

Brown EG, Furesz J, Dimock K et al. 1991. Nucelotide sequence analysis of Urabe mumps vaccine strain that caused meningitis in vaccine recipients. Vaccine 9:840-842.

Byers RK, Moll PC. 1948. Encephalopathies following prophylactic pertussis vaccination. Pediatrics 1: 437-457.

Centers for Disease Control. 1995. Asthma – United States, 1982-1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 43: 952-954

Centers for Disease Control. 1995. Disabilities among children aged less than or equal to 17 years – United States, 1991-1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 44: 609.

Centers for Disease Control. 1998. National, state and urban area vaccination coverage levels among children aged 19-35 months – United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 47: 26.

Centers for Disease Control. 1987. Pertussis immunization: family history of convulsions and use of antipyretics – supplementary ACIP statement. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 36.

Centers for Disease Control. 1997. Trends in the prevalence and incidence of self-reported diabetes mellitus – United States, 1980-1994. Journal of the American Medical Association 278: 1564

Champsaur HF, Bottazzo GF, Bertrams J et al. 1982. Virologic, immunologic, and genetic factors in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Pediatrics 100: 15-20.

Chess, Stella. 1971. Autism in Children with Congenital Rubella. J. Autism 1: 69-81.

Chess, Stella. 1977. Follow Up Report on Autism in Congenital Rubella. J Autism 7: 69-81.

Classen JB. 1996. Childhood immunization and diabetes mellitus (letter). NZ Med J 109: 195.

Clements SD & Peters JE. 1981. Syndromes of minimal brain dysfunction. In Brain dysfunction in children: Etiology, diagnosis, and management. New York: Raven Press.

Cody CL, Baraff LJ, Cherry JD, Marcy SM, Manclark CR. 1981. Nature and rates of adverse reactions associated with DTP and DT immunizations in infants and children. Pediatrics 68:650-660.

Colgan M, Colgan L. 1984. Do nutrient supplements and dietary changes affect learning and emotional reactions of children with learning difficulties? A controlled series of 16 cases. Nutrition and Health 48: 4.

Comi AM, Zimmerman AW, Frye VH et al. 1999. Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism. J Child Neurol 14: 388-394.

Cookson W, Moffatt MF. 1997. Asthma: An Epidemic in the absence of infection? Science 275: 41-42.

Coulter HL. 1990. Vaccination, Social Violence and Criminality. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.

Coulter HL & Fisher BL. 1985. DPT: A Shot in the Dark. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Cowart VS. 1988. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: physicians helping parents pay more heed. Journal of the American Medical Association 259: 2647-2652.

Demyer MK, Barton S, DeMyer et al. 1973. Prognosis in autism: a follow-up study. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 3: 199-246.

Deykin EY, MacMahon B. 1979. Viral exposure and autism. American Journal of Epidemiology 102: 628-638.

Dick, GWA. 1967. Reactions to the pertussis component of quadruple and triple vaccines. International Symposium on Combined Vaccines, Marburg. Symposia Series in Immunobiological Standardization 7: 21-28. Basel and New York: Karger.

Dick GWA. 1974. Convulsive disorders in young children. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 67: 371-373.

Disability Statistics Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, University of California, San Francisco. 1996. Trends in disability rates in the United States, 1970-1994. US Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Disability Statistics Abstract 17: November. 

Ehrengut W, Zastrow K. 1989. Complications “following” mumps vaccination in the Federal Republic of Germany (including combined vaccine immunizations). Monatsschrift fur Kinderheilkunde 137: 398-402.

Ekbom A, Wakefield AJ, Zack M, Adami HO. 1994. The role of perinatal measles infection in the serology of Crohn’s disease: a population-based epidemiological study. Lancet 334: 508-510. 

EURODIAB ACE Study Group. 2000. Variation and trends in incidence of childhood diabetes in Europe. Lancet 355: 873-876.

Fisher BL. 1998. Letter. Lancet 351: 1357 (In response to Chen RT, DeStefano F. 1998. Vaccine adverse effects: causal or coincidental? Lancet 351: 611-612).

Freeman BJ, Ritvo ER. 1984. The syndrome of autism: establishing the diagnosis and principles of management. Pediatric Annals 13: 284-296.

Geschwind N. 1982. Why Orton was right. Annals of Dyslexia XXXII: 13-20.

Geschwind N, Behan P. 1982. Left-handedness: association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Proc. National Academy of Sciences USA 79 (August 1982): 5097-5100.

Gillberg C. 1985. Asperger’s syndrome and recurrent psychosis – a case study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 15: 389-397.

Goodwin MS, Campbell W. 1969. In a dark mirror. Mental Hygiene 53: 550-563.

Granel B, Disdier P, Swinder L et al. 1997. Occlusion of the central retinal vein after vaccination against viral hepatitis B with recombinant vaccines. Four cases. Presse Med 26: 62-65.

Grose C., Spigland I. 1976. Guillain-Barre syndrome following administration of live measles vaccine. American Journal of Medicine 60: 441-443.

Guiserix J. 1996. Systemic lupus erythematosus following hepatitis B vaccine (letter) Nephron 74: 441.

Gupta S, Aggarwal S, Heads C. 1996. Brief Report: Dysregulated immune system in children with autism: beneficial effects of intravenous immune globulin on autistic characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders: 26: 4.

Halpern SR, Halpern D. 1955. Reactions from DPT immunization and its relationship to allergic children. Journal of Pediatrics 47: 60-67.

Hannik CA. 1969. Major reactions after DPT-polio vaccination in the Netherlands. International Symposium on Pertussis, Bilthoven. Symposium Series on Immunobiological Standardization 13: 161-170. Basel, Munchen, New York: Karger.

Hannik CA, Cohen H. 1978. Changes in plasma insulin concentration and temperature of infants after pertussis vaccination. International Symposium on Pertussis: 297-299.

Harris HF. 1899. A case of diabetes mellitus quickly following mumps. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 55: 38.

Hemachudha T, Griffen DE, Giffels BA et al. 1987. Myelin basic protein as an encephalitogen in encephalomyelitis and polyneuritis following rabies vaccination. New England Journal of Medicine: 316: 369-374.

Herroelen L, DeKeyser J., Ebinger G. 1991. Central-nervous system demyelination after immunisation with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The Lancet 338 (November 9): 1174-1175. 

Horwitz MS, Sarvetnik N. 1999. Viruses, host responses and autoimmunity. Immunological Reviews: 169: 241-253.

Hopper JM. 1961. Illness after whooping cough vaccination. Medical Officer (October 20): 241-244.

Institute of Medicine. 1991. Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Institute of Medicine: 1994. Adverse Effects Associated with Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Institute of Medicine. 1994. DPT Vaccine and Chronic Nervous System Dysfunction: A New Analysis. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Kahn E, Cohen LH. 1934. Organic drivenness: A brain-stem syndrome and an experience. New England Journal of Medicine 210: 748-756. 

Kanner L. 1943. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. The Nervous Child 2:217-250.

Kanner L.. 1944. Early infantile autism. J Pediatrics 25: 211-217.

Kanner L.. 1954. To what extent is early infantile autism determined by constitutional inadequacies? In Genetics and the Inheritance of Integrated Neurological and Psychiatric Patterns. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

Koeng E. 1953. Zur pertussisimpfung und ihre gegenindikationen. Helvetica Pediatrica Acta 8: 90-98.

Kuhlenkampff M, Schwartzman JS, Wilson J. 1974. Neurological complications of pertussis inoculation. Archives of Disease in Childhood 49: 46-49.

Landrigen PJ, Witte JJ. 1973. Neurologic disorders following live measles virus vaccination. Journal of the American Medical Association 223:1459-1462.

Lidin-Janson G, Strannegard O. 1972. Two cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome and encephalitis after measles. British Medical Journal 2:572.

Low NL. 1955. Electroencephalographic studies following pertussis immunization. Journal of Pediatrics 47: 35-39.

Lucarelli S, Frediani T., Zingoni AM et al.1995. Food allergy and infantile autism. Panminerva Med 3: 137-141.

Lumsden CE. 1949. Brain 72: 517.

Lurie LA, Levy S. 1942. Personality Changes and Behavior Disorders of Children Following Pertussis. Journal of the American Medical Association 120: 890-894.

Menkes JH, Kinsbourne M. 1990. Workshop on neurologic complications of pertussis and pertussis vaccination. Neuropediatrics 21: 171-176.

Menser MA, Forrest JM, Bransby RD. 1978. Rubella infection and diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1:57-60.

Miller HG, Evans MJ. 1953. Quart J. Med 22: 347.

Mnukhin SS, Isaev DN. 1975. On the organic nature of some forms of schizoid or autistic psychopathy. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 5: 99-108.

Montgomery SM, Morris DL, Pounder RE et al. 1999. Paramyxovirus infections in childhood and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 116: 796-803.

Montinari M, Favoino B, Roberto A. 1996. Diagnostic Role of Immunogenetics in Post-Vaccine Diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS): Preliminary Results. Mediterranean Journal of Surgery and Medicine 2: 69-72.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 1998. The Jordan Report: Accelerated Development of Vaccines. National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services.

New York Academy of Sciences. 1995. Combined vaccines and simultaneous administration: current issues and perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 754. 

Ornitz EM, Ritvo E. 1976. The Syndrome of Autism: A Critical Review. AJ Psychiatry 133: 609-621.

Otten A., Helmke K, Stief T et al. 1984. Mumps, mumps vaccination, islet cell antibodies, and the first manifestations of diabetes mellitus type 1. Behring Institute Mittelungen 75: 83-88.

Panksepp J. 1979. A neurochemical theory of autism. Trends Neurosci 2: 174-177.

Pittman M. 1979. Pertussis toxin: The cause of the harmful effects and prolonged immunity of whooping cough. A hypothesis. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1: 401-412.

Pittman M. 1970. Bordetella pertussis – bacterial and host factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of whooping cough. In: Mudd S. Ed. Infectious Agents and Host Reactions. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.

Pope JE, Stevens A, Howson W, Bell DA. 1998. The development of rheumatoid arthritis after recombinant hepatitis B vaccination. J Rheumatol 9: 1687-93.

Poutasi K. 1996. Immunisation and diabetes (letter). NZ Med J 109: 283.

Preblud SR. 1985. Some current issues relating to rubella vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Association 254: 253-256.

Quast U, Hennessen W, Widmark RM. 1979. Vaccine induced mumps-like diseases. Developments in Biological Standardization 43: 269-272.

Rapp DJ. 1996. Is This Your Child’s World? New York: Bantam Books.

Reichelt KL, Hole K, Hamberger A et al. 1993. Biologically active peptide-containing fractions in schizophrenia and childhood autism. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 28: 627-643.

Riikonen R. 1989. The role of infection and vaccination in the genesis of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis in children. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 80: 425-431.

Rimland, Bernard. 1962. Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior. New York: Appleton Century Crofts.

Ritvo ER, Freeman BJ. 1984. A medical model of autism: etiology, pathology and treatment. Pediatric Annals 13: 298-305.

Ritvo ER, Ritvo EC, Brothers AM. 1982. Genetic and immunohematologic factors in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12: 109-111.

Rivers TM, Schwenker FF. 1935. Encephalomyelitis accompanied by myelin destruction experimentally produced in monkeys. Journal of Experimental Medicine 61: 689-702.

Rubenstein P, Walker ME, Fedun B et al. 1982.The HLA system in congenital rubella patients with and without diabetes. Diabetes 31: 1088-1091.

Russell RR., Donald JC. 1958. The neurological complications of mumps. British Medical Journal: 27-30. 

Rutter M, Schopler E. 1987. Autism and pervasive developmental disorders: concepts and diagnostic issues. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 17: 159-186.

Sears W, Thompson L. 1998. The A.D.D. Book. New York: Little, Brown & Co. 

Schneck SA. 1968. Vaccination with measles and central nervous system disease. Neurology 18 (Part2): 79-82.

Shattock P, Kennedy A., Rowell F et al. 1991. Role of neuropeptides in autism and their relationship with classical neurotransmitters. Brain Dysfunction 3: 328-345. 

Shaw FE, Graham DJ, Guess HA et al. 1988. Postmarketing surveillance for neurologic adverse events reported after hepatitis B vaccination. Experience of the first three years. Am J Epidemiol 127: 337-352.

Shorter E. 1987. The Health Century. New York: Doubleday.

Sinaniotis CA, Daskalopoulou E., Lapatsanis P et al. 1975. Diabetes mellitus after mumps vaccination (letter). Archives of Disease in Childhood 50: 749-750.

Stewart GT. 1977. Vaccination against whooping cough: efficacy versus risks. Lancet 1: 234-237.

Singh VK, Sheren XL, Yang VC. 1998. Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibiodies in autism. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 89: 105-108.

Singh VK, Warren RP, Odell, JD et al. 1993. Antibodies to myelin basic protein in children with autistic behavior. Brain Behav Immun7: 97-103.

Steinman L, Sriram S, Adelman S et al. 1982. Murine Model for Pertussis Vaccine Encephalopathy: Linkage to H-2. Nature 299: 738-740.

Stewart GT. 1979. Toxicity of pertussis vaccine: frequency and probability of reactions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 33: 150-156.

Strom J. 1960. Is universal vaccination against pertussis always justified? British Medical Journal 2: 1184-1186.

Strom J. 1967. Further experience of reactions, especially of a cerebral nature, in conjunction with triple vaccination: a study based on vaccinations in Sweden. 1959-1965. British Medical Journal 4: 320-323.

Stubbs EG. 1976. Autistic children exhibit undetectable hemagglutinin-inhibition antibody titers despite previous rubella vaccination. J Autism 6: 269-274.

Stubbs EG, Crawford ML, Burger DR, Vandenbark AA. 1977. Depressed lymphocyte responsiveness in autistic children. J Autism 10: 15-19.

Sugiura A., Yamada A. 1991. Aseptic meningitis as a complication of mumps vaccination. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1:10:209-213.

Taranger J, Wilholm BE. 1987. The low number of reported adverse effects after vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella. Lakartidningen 84: 948-950.

Taylor B, Miller E, Farringdon CP et al. 1999. MMR vaccine and autism: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Lancet 353: 2026-2029.

Thompson NP, Montgomery SM, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ. 1995. Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease? Lancet 345 (April 29): 1071-1074.

Tingle AJ, Chantler JK, Pot KH et al. 1986. Postpartum rubella immunization: association with development of prolonged arthritis, neurological sequelae, and chronic rubella viremia. Journal of Infectious Diseases 152: 606-612.

Tingle AJ, Allen M, Petty RE et al. 1986. Rubella-associated arthritis. Comparative study of joint manifestations associated with natural rubella infection and RA 27/3 rubella immunisation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 45: 100-114.

Tourbah A., Gout O, Liblau R et al. 1999. Encephalitis after hepatitis B vaccination: recurrent disseminated encephalitis of MS? Neurology 53: 396-401.

Trottier G, Srivastava L, Walker CD. 1999. Etiology of infantile autism: a review of recent advances in genetic and neurobiological research. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2:103-15.

Urnovitz HB, Tuite JJ, Higashida JM, Murphy WH. RNAs in the sera of Persian Gulf War veterans have segments homologous to chromosome 22q11.2. 1999. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, May 1999: 330-335.

US Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. 1997. Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data Survey. (http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/digest97/d97t052.html) 

US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Pertussis Conference: Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Trials: Results and Impact on US Public Health, June 3-5, 1996.

Waisbren BA. 1977. Perspectives on universal hepatitis B vaccination (letter). Journal of the American Medical Association 227: 1124-1125.

Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A et al. 1998. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 351: 637-641.

Warren RP, Burger RA, Odell D et al. 1994. Decreased plasma concentrations of the C4B complement protein in autism. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 148:180-183.

Warren RP, Margaretten NC, Pace NC. 1986. Immune abnormalities in patients with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders: 16: 189-197.

Warren RP, Singh VK, Cole P et al. 1991. Increased frequency of the null allele at the complement C4B locus in autism. Clin Exp Immunol 33:438-440.

Warren RP, Yonk J, Burger RW et al. 1995. DR-positive Tcells in autism: association with decreased plasma levels of the complement C4B protein. Neuropsychobiology 31:53-57.

Weibel RE, Caserta V, Benor DE, Evans G. 1998. Acute encephalopathy followed by permanent brain injury or death associated with further attenuated measles vaccines: a review of claims submitted to the national vaccine injury compensation program. Pediatrics 101: 383-387.

Weizman AR, Weizman GA, Szekely H et al. 1982. Abnormal immune response to brain tissue antigen in the syndrome of autism. AJ Psychiatry 139: 1462-1465.

Zito JM, Safer DJ, dosReis S et al. 2000. Trends in the prescribing of psychotropic medications to preschoolers. Journal of the American Medical Association 283: 1025-1030.

Make a Difference

NVIC is 100% funded by donations. Please give. Help educate families about preventing vaccine injury and death by donating to NVIC today.

Ask Questions
Vaccine doses banner