Who is at Highest Risk for Getting Hib?
According to the CDC, children under the age of 5 and adults over the age of 65 are most at risk for developing Hib. Additionally, Alaskan Natives and American Indians have also been found to be at higher risk for developing invasive Hib disease.1
Individuals with certain pre-existing medical conditions may also be at an increased risk. These include persons with:2
- HIV infection;
- Cancer who are receiving treatment such as radiation, chemotherapy or stem cell therapy;
- Sickle Cell Disease;
- A rare immune disorder known as complement or antibody deficiency syndrome that affects a person’s ability to fight infection.
Other risk factors for the development of Hib include living in crowded households, daycare attendance, the presence of younger siblings, cigarette smoke exposure, and having a lower socioeconomic status.3
Currently, adults, especially seniors, over the age of 65 are at highest risk of developing invasive H. influenzae disease. While the incidence of H. influenzae type b has decreased significantly, non-b type and nontypeable H. influenzae disease continue to result in invasive disease 4 5 6 and appear to be replacing H. influenzae type b.7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Hib vaccination does not provide protection against any other form of H. influenzae. 14
IMPORTANT NOTE: NVIC encourages you to become fully informed about Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib) and the Hib vaccine by reading all sections in the Table of Contents, which contain many links and resources such as the manufacturer product information inserts, and to speak with one or more trusted health care professionals before making a vaccination decision for yourself or your child. This information is for educational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice.
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1 CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (including Hib) Causes, How It Spreads, and People at Increased Risk Feb 13, 2018
3 Rathore MH Pediatric Haemophilus Influenzae Infection - Pathophysiology Medscape Apr. 4, 2016
4 Rubach MP, Bender JM, Mottice S et al. Increasing Incidence of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease in Adults, Utah, USA Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep; 17(9): 1645–1650.
5 Sarangi J, Cartwright K ,Stuart J et al. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults. Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Jun; 124(3): 441–447.
6 Campos J, Hernando M, Román F, et al. Analysis of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections after extensive vaccination against H. influenzae type b. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Feb;42(2):524-9.
7 Urwin G, Krohn JA, Deaver-Robinson K et al. Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype f: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics in the H. influenzae serotype b vaccine era. The Haemophilus influenzae Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Jun;22(6):1069-76.
8 Waggoner-Fountain LA, Hendley JO, Cody EJ et al. The emergence of Haemophilus influenzae types e and f as significant pathogens. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Nov;21(5):1322-4.
9 Ulanova M, Tsang RSW Haemophilus influenzae serotype a as a cause of serious invasive infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;14(1):70-82
10 Bruce MG, Deeks SL, Zulz T et al. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae serotype a, North American Arctic, 2000-2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jan;14(1):48-55.
11 Adam HJ, Richardson SE, Jamieson FB et al. Changing epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Ontario, Canada: evidence for herd effects and strain replacement due to Hib vaccination. Vaccine. 2010 May 28;28(24):4073-8
12 Langere JD, de Jonge MI Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct; 21(10): 1711–1718.
13 Cerquetti M, Giufrè M Why we need a vaccine for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 Sep; 12(9): 2357–2361.
14 CDC Haemophilus influenzae type b – Clinical Features Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book). 13th ed. 2015.