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Hepatitis B Disease & Vaccine Information

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Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B: The Disease

Hepatitis B (HBV) is a viral infection that infects the liver and requires direct contact with infected blood or other body fluids for transmission and most acute infections do not persist and become chronic.

Symptoms of hepatitis B generally appear in 90 days and last a few weeks, and about half of infected adults and children over the age of five will have symptoms, while many children under the age of five will not.1 Symptoms include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, discolored (clay) bowel movements, joint pain and jaundice (yellowish skin or eyes).2 Learn more about Hepatitis B disease …

Hepatitis B Vaccine

There are six recombinant hepatitis B vaccines and one adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine approved by the FDA in the U.S. The CDC recommends that all infants be vaccinated with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine beginning at 12 hours of age, with the last dose given before 18 months of age to prevent transmission by an infected mother to her newborn. The CDC also recommends hepatitis B vaccination for adults who are at higher risk of infection due to lifestyle choices or underlying health condition, possible exposure through infected blood, and travel to endemic countries. Learn more about Hepatitis B vaccine

Hepatitis B Quick Facts

Hepatitis B

  • Hepatitis B (HBV) is a viral infection that infects the liver and requires direct contact with infected blood or other body fluids for transmission. Most acute hepatitis B infections do not persist but if the infection lasts 6 months or longer, it could lead to chronic liver disease, liver cancer and death.3
  • Hepatitis B is not common in childhood in the U.S. and is not highly contagious in the same way that common childhood diseases like pertussis and chicken pox are contagious. In the U.S., hepatitis B is primarily an adult disease (ages 20-50) but the virus also can be transmitted from an infected mother to her newborn baby. Most people do not experience any symptoms during acute infection but may have symptoms, such as yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.4 5
  • In the U.S., individuals at highest risk for hepatitis B infection are those, who engage in risky behaviors such as illegal IV drug use, prostitution, men who have sex with men, heterosexuals with multiple sexual partners and people who have received blood transfusions using infected blood.6 Continue reading quick facts

Hepatitis B Vaccine

  • There are six recombinant hepatitis B vaccines approved by the FDA for use in the U.S.: Engerix-B; Recombivax HB; Twinrix (combined with hepatitis A); and Pediarix (combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis adsorbed, and inactivated poliovirus). 7 The fifth, Comvax (combined with Haemophilus Influenza Type B (HIB) and Meningococcal Protein) is an approved vaccine but production of the vaccine was discontinued in December 2014.8 The sixth is Heplisav-B, recombinant adjuvanted vaccine, and was recommended for use in adults by the CDC in 2018.9
  • The CDC recommends that all infants be vaccinated with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine beginning at 12 hours of age with the last dose given before 18 months of age to prevent transmission by an infected mother to her newborn.10 The CDC also recommends hepatitis B vaccination for adults with diabetes; household and sexual contacts of people with chronic hepatitis B infection; healthcare workers; people at increased risk for hepatitis B virus exposure due to occupational, behavioral, or medical factors; and international travelers to countries with high or intermediate hepatitis B infection rates.11
  • The primary reason that the CDC recommended hepatitis B vaccination for all newborns in the United States in 1991 is because public health officials and doctors could not persuade adults in high risk groups (primarily IV drug users and persons with multiple sexual partners) to get the vaccine.12 13 14 Continue reading quick facts...

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References

1 CDC. Viral Hepatitis – Hepatitis B Information – Hepatitis B FAQs for Health Professionals – Transmission, Symptoms, and Treatments. Revised Aug. 4, 2016.

2 CDC. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine Preventable Disease. Viral Hepatitis – Hepatitis B Information – Symptoms. 13th Edition. April 2015.

3 CDC. Viral Hepatitis - Hepatitis B information

4 World Health Organization (WHO). Media Centre Fact Sheets. Hepatitis B. July 2017.

5 CDC. Hepatitis B Information for Health Professionals. Hepatitis B Vaccination FAQs for Health Professionals. Revised Aug. 4, 2016.

6 CDC. Hepatitis B FAQs for Health Professionals: Who is at risk for HBV infection? Revised May 31, 2015.

7 FDA. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Complete List of Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the U.S. Feb. 14, 2018.

8 CDC. Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays. Revised Aug. 15, 2017.

9 FDA. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Complete List of Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the U.S. Feb. 14, 2018.

10 CDC. A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus: Infection in the United States – Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part 1: Immunization of Infants, Children and Adolescents. MMWR 54(RR16):1-23, Dec 23, 2005.

11 CDC. Vaccines. Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 years or Older, by Vaccine and Age Group - United States 2016. Revised Mar. 5, 2018.

12 Kasper D, Fauci A, Longo D, et al. Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System: Prophylaxis: Hepatitis B. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 16th Edition. 2005. pp 1836-1837.

13 Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board. Antwerp VHPB Report. Editorial. Control of viral hepatitis in Europe. Viral Hepatitis, 1996, 4(2).

14 CDC. Hepatitis B Virus: A Comprehensive Strategy for Eliminating Transmission in the United States through Universal Childhood Vaccination: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR Nov. 22, 1991, 40(RR-13);1-19.


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