NVIC Vaccine News

What Mothers Should Know About COVID and COVID-19 Vaccine for Children

By Barbara Loe Fisher
Published March 11, 2022 in Government


Story Summary

    • Most coronaviruses cause mild symptoms like the common cold;
    • Many assumptions have been made about COVID-19 vaccine use;
    • Parents may not be receiving accurate vaccine risk information;
    • Severity of disease in chidren is rare;
    • Children are being targeted for COVID-19 vaccine mandates.
 

Even though fathers are spending more time sharing the raising of children with mothers today, 1 national surveys show that women with minor children still remain the primary childcare givers in America.2 3 The ones who usually take children to doctors, mothers are on the front line soon expected to make decisions about giving babies as young as six months old the new genetically engineered Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine when the FDA predictably approves it for emergency use this spring. 4 5

Public health officials want doctors to give the mRNA vaccine, which forces the body’s cells to manufacture the SARS-COV-2 spike protein, to the most vulnerable age group, 6 the tiny babies and young children under five years old, whose immune systems and brains are not yet fully developed. 7 8 9 It is an age group that mothers historically have been the most responsible for nurturing and protecting from harm.

Fastest Development and Mass Administration of An Experimental Vaccine in History

mRNA Vaccine

The targeting of infants and toddlers for COVID vaccination comes two years after the US government declared a coronavirus public health emergency in January 2020 10 and then gave Pfizer and six other drug companies $9 billion dollars to manufacture a coronavirus vaccine at warp speed. 11 Most vaccines take at least 10 years to go through the development and testing licensing process before being approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for distribution. 12 Pfizer spent just 248 days testing their experimental COVID vaccine using a never-before licensed technology, which injects synthetic mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles into the body to induce cells to make the SARS-COV-2 spike protein and become - in the words of the World Economic Forum - “vaccine production plants.” 13 14

In December 2020, the FDA granted Pfizer and its German corporation partner BioNTech, an Emergency Use Authorization – or EUA - to release the unlicensed mRNA vaccine for use by every person over 16 years old. 15 16 That EUA was quickly followed six months later by one for children as young as 12,17 then five months later with authorization for children as young as five. 18  

COVID gold

It is the fastest development and mass administration of an experimental vaccine to healthy humans in history, 19 and the first vaccine to be distributed and recommended for mass use under an Emergency Use Authorization.20 Although the FDA fully licensed Pfizer’s Comirnaty vaccine in August 2021 as “safe, pure and potent” for 16 year olds, 21 it still is not officially licensed for children younger than that.  

FDA’s Emergency Use Authorization of COVID Vaccine Comes with Large Assumptions

By February 2022, only about 55 percent of children over age 12 in America had gotten two doses of the Pfizer COVID vaccine, while just 30 percent of five to 11 year-olds had received at least one dose.22 Perhaps mothers are not impressed with the dodgy rationale FDA officials used to justify handing Pfizer an EUA using vague language with large assumptions like it is “reasonable to believe” the vaccine “may be effective” and “reasonable to conclude based on the totality of the scientific evidence available” that the “known and potential benefits...outweigh the known and potential risks of the vaccine.” 23

Those kinds of sweeping caveats clearly demonstrate that an EUA allows a lower standard for scientific evidence of the product’s safety and effectiveness than full licensure. 24 In fact, it is not unreasonable to conclude that the Pfizer COVID vaccine is still an investigational product, still experimental whenever it is given to a child under 16 years old. 25 26

So far, parents in America are split down the middle when it comes to the idea of giving young children Pfizer’s new COVID-19 vaccine. Half of parents 27 are uncomfortable with injecting synthetic mRNA coated in lipid nanoparticles into the cells of their child’s body, which is supposed to prevent a bad case of COVID disease – but not necessarily prevent their child from being infected with the virus and transmitting it to others. 28 29 With researchers finding that many SARS-CoV-2 infections in young children are asymptomatic and go undetected, 30 and with evidence that natural immunity from infection is broad and persistent, 31 32 parents are asking legitimate questions about why their young children are candidates for this vaccine.

A recent survey found that half of parents were worried about (1) whether the vaccine has been studied long enough in children; (2) whether there are long term side effects; (3) whether the vaccine’s experimental mRNA technology is safe; (4) whether the vaccines work, and (5) the effect of short-term side effects.33 Research published in February 2022 revealed that one third of parents say they will “wait and see” before vaccinating a child under five years old and 26 percent say they will “definitely not” allow their infant or toddler to receive the COVID vaccine. 34

Boy being vaccinated

With the majority of parents worried about whether Pfizer’s COVID vaccine carries unacceptable risks, is effective, or is necessary for their child, what kind of information about COVID disease and the vaccine is being given to mothers taking children to pediatricians around the country?

Are Mothers Being Given Accurate, Complete Information About COVID Vaccine?

Is the information accurate and complete?  

Are pediatricians treating mothers with respect and allowing them to exercise voluntary informed consent to COVID vaccination on behalf of a minor child, or are mothers being threatened and punished if they say, “no thanks?”  35   How many doctors plan to deny medical care to children when their mothers decline the COVID vaccine?  

A 2020 study reported that more than half of US pediatricians refuse to care for a child if their mothers decline to give the child even one of the four dozen doses of other vaccines CDC officials insist all children must get before age six. 36 37 38 39 To stop mothers from being able to exercise informed consent to vaccination on behalf of their children, medical trade associations have lobbied state legislatures to pass laws giving doctors permission to extract consent for any type of vaccination from children as young as 11 years old without the knowledge of their parents 40 and, in 2020, the District of Columbia was the first to pass that kind of law. 41 42  Five states (Alabama, Oregon, South Carolina, North Carolina and Rhode Island) have passed laws to give doctors the power to persuade children between 14 and 16 years old to get COVID vaccine without telling parents. 43

Healthy Boy

If you cringe thinking about whether your 11 year old or teenager is intellectually, psychologically and emotionally equipped to accurately weigh the potential benefits and risks of a vaccine and resist the pressure from a doctor telling them what to do, 44 you are not alone.

As a co-founder of the charitable National Vaccine Information Center established in 1982 to prevent vaccine injuries and deaths through public education, 45 I have never been more concerned about a new vaccine the government wants doctors to give to every infant and child. As a mother of three and now a grandmother, as a college-educated woman who completely trusted my pediatrician when I took my healthy two and a half year old son for a DPT shot in 1980 and then watched him suffer a convulsion, collapse and brain inflammation reaction that put him in a special education classroom, 46 I urge all mothers to become fully informed about the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the COVID-19 vaccine before making a vaccination decision for a child of any age.

All Vaccines Come with Two Risks

Tray with Vaccines

Vaccines are pharmaceutical products that come with two risks: a risk the vaccine will cause a reaction that could cause harm, and a risk the vaccine will fail to protect against infection and transmission of a disease that could cause harm. Because we are all individuals born with different genes and environmental influences, the risks for disease complications or vaccine complications can be greater for some, depending upon genetic, epigenetic, environmental and other biological factors unique to the individual. 47 48 49 50

If the risks of COVID vaccination turn out to be 100 percent for your child – whether it is because the vaccine causes a severe reaction or fails to prevent severe complications of the disease – you should know that in June 2020, Congress completely shielded vaccine manufacturers and anyone administering the COVID vaccine from product liability and malpractice lawsuits in civil court. 51 52 So whatever happens, you will be on your own.

boy getting vaccinated

At the National Vaccine information Center, we do not make vaccine use recommendations, but we do defend without compromise the human right to exercise voluntary, informed consent to medical risk taking. 53 You have the moral right and should have the legal right to accept or refuse a vaccine for yourself or your minor child without being sanctioned in any way. 54

This commentary offers an overview of COVID disease and the vaccine, with a focus on the genetically engineered messenger mRNA COVID vaccine manufactured by Pfizer being recommended for children by federal government officials and medical trade associations in the U.S. I encourage you to check out the library of over 200 live-linked references anchoring this commentary on NVIC.org to verify the content and do your own research.

Most Coronaviruses Cause Mild Symptoms Like the Common Cold

Coronaviruses are a group of diverse, single stranded RNA viruses that have been around for thousands of years and infect animals, as well as humans. Coronaviruses usually cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms like those of the common cold,55 with the exception of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in China in 2002, and the coronavirus causing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) identified in Jordan and Saudi Arabia in 2012 - both of which had high mortality rates.56  

About 20 percent of cold or flu-like upper respiratory infections each year are caused by coronaviruses and there is evidence that many people already have at least partial natural immunity to common coronavirus infections.  Some researchers think this may be one reason why the current SARS-CoV-2 infection is asymptomatic or mild for most healthy children and many adults, 57 and why COVID-19 tests can generate false positive results because the tests pick up evidence of previous coronavirus infections. 58 59

Disagreement About Origins of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID Vaccine Effectiveness and Safety 

Covid Origin

Since early 2020, public health officials have insisted that the SARS-CoV-2 virus spontaneously jumped into a human out of a bat at a wet food market in China and the only way to end the pandemic is to lock down, mask up, and require everyone to be vaccinated. 60 61 62 63 64 65 There are prominent scientists, doctors, ethicists, attorneys, lawmakers and journalists around the world, who disagree with that view. They point out there is compelling evidence:

  • that the SARS-CoV-2 virus was created in a lab and top health officials did not want the public to know about it; 66 67 68 69
  • that fast tracked mRNA COVID vaccines have not been thoroughly tested by drug companies, which have failed to release all the clinical trial data, and both the companies and public health officials are downplaying serious vaccine-related reactions and deaths; 70 71 72 73 74 75 76
  • that the most widely-used mRNA COVID manufactured by Pfizer and Moderna may prevent serious disease complications, but vaccinated people can still get infected with and transmit the new coronavirus to other people, 77 and any temporary protection from COVID disease wanes quickly after vaccination; 78
  • that the SARS-CoV-2 infection is mostly asymptomatic or mild in healthy children and young adults 79 and that naturally acquired immunity is equal to or broader and longer lasting than COVID vaccine acquired artificial immunity; 80 81 82 83 and
  • that governments have done more harm than good by locking down societies and creating masking and vaccine mandates; 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

Here are four questions you need to keep in mind when you are making a COVID-19 vaccine decision for your minor child:

1. HOW SERIOUS IS COVID-19 DISEASE IN CHILDREN?

By February 2022, the new coronavirus had evolved from the original alpha variant that human populations had no immunological experience with, to the more transmissible and severe Delta variant that emerged in the summer of 2021, to the Omicron variant that became dominant in late 2021. 91  Omicron is highly contagious but causes fewer complications and hospitalizations than Delta, 92 and there is speculation that the fact so many people have developed various degrees of natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is one reason why hospitalizations and deaths are coming down in the U.S. 93 94  

As of Feb. 14, 2022, COVID-19 death rates reported by states in the previous seven days ranged from 0.26 to about 1.5 deaths per 100,000 people.95 To put the  worst case 1.5 COVID-related deaths per 100,000 people rate into perspective, the annual death rate for some of the leading causes of death in the U.S. in 2014 were: 193 deaths per 100,000 for heart disease; 186 per 100,000 for cancer; 46 per 100,000 for chronic respiratory disease; 24 per 100,000 for diabetes; 15 per 100,000 for drug overdoses. 96

Serious COVID-19 Complications Usually Occur in People Over 65 with Chronic Health Problems  

Medical Emergency

At the outset of the coronavirus pandemic, it became obvious that most of the serious complications of COVID-19 disease leading to hospitalizations and death do not occur in children or healthy young adults, but in people over age 65, especially if they have one or more chronic health problems.  In 2020, researchers projected that about 45 percent of the U.S. adult population was at increased risk for complications from SARS-CoV-2 infections because of underlying heart or respiratory disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer. 97

One big study sponsored by the CDC looked at the connection between underlying medical conditions and severe illness among more than 500,000 adults with COVID-19 admitted to 800 US hospitals in 2020 and 2021.  Researchers found that 95 percent of adult COVID patients had at least one underlying poor health condition like high blood pressure and obesity. 98 The strongest risk factors for death were obesity, anxiety and fear disorders, and diabetes with complications.

Children with chronic health problems are also at risk for COVID disease complications. The CDC states on its website that, “In the United States, more than 40% of school-aged children and adolescents have at least one chronic health condition, such as asthma, obesity, other physical conditions, and behavior/learning problems.” 99  

Most Serious COVID-19 Complications Occur in Children with Underlying Chronic Conditions  

A large cross-sectional study funded by the CDC examined the health records of more than 43,000 patients under the age of 18 with a COVID diagnosis who visited the emergency room or were admitted to 900 US hospitals in 2020 or January 2021. 100  The median age of child COVID patients was 12 years old. Researchers found that about 29 percent of the child COVID patients had underlying chronic conditions like asthma; obesity; and neurodevelopmental, depressive, anxiety and fear-related disorders. The strongest risk factors for hospitalization were type 1 diabetes and obesity. The strongest risk factors for severe COVID illness were type 1 diabetes and congenital cardiac and circulatory problems.  Prematurity was a risk factor for severe COVID illness in children under two years old. 101   Those with a COVID diagnosis represented only about 1 percent of all children who visited an emergency room or were admitted to the hospital.

More than 81% of COVID related deaths in the U.S. have occurred in seniors over age 65 and deaths in that age group are 80 times higher than for people between 18 and 29.102  The COVID case fatality rate for children by February 2022 was measured at less than one percent in the U.S.103

Studies Show Most Healthy Infants and Children Have Either No or Mild COVID Disease Symptoms

Mom kisses happy infant

Studies have shown that most healthy infants and children with COVID disease either have no symptoms or much milder symptoms than adults, which last about a week. 104 COVID disease symptoms in the majority of healthy children are similar to a cold or flu-like illness and range from fever, sore throat, fatigue and body aches to runny nose and congestion, headache, cough, nausea and diarrhea.  As with most respiratory diseases, pneumonia is always a risk and, clearly, risks for COVID complications are higher for children with certain types of underlying chronic disease. 105

Severe complications of COVID-19 disease in some individuals appear to involve a hyper-inflammatory response by the immune system to infection with SARS-CoV-2. This can lead to cytokine storm involving elevated levels of circulating cytokines and immune-cell hyperactivation that can lead to severe respiratory distress and death if the inflammation does not resolve. 106 There is a condition called Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that has been reported rarely, and obese children are most at risk. Symptoms include a prolonged fever, unusual fatigue, vomiting and diarrhea, red skin rash, abdominal pain, red lips and eyes and swollen hands or feet.107  

Children Who Get COVID Have Very Low Risk for Hospitalization, Long COVID or Death

While the majority of people diagnosed with COVID disease have mild to moderate symptoms, about 10 to 15 percent become severely ill and five percent become critically ill. Most recover in two to three weeks, but researchers estimate about one in five may have symptoms for five or more weeks and one in 10 people will have symptoms that last for 12 weeks or longer. 108 Symptoms of “long Covid,” can include fatigue, shortness of breath, muscle pain, joint pain, headache, cough, chest pain, altered smell and taste, diarrhea, difficulty thinking clearly, memory loss, anxiety and sleep disorders. About four percent of children may experience “long Covid” symptoms like fatigue, headache and loss of smell and the majority recover within eight weeks. 109

Mom with baby

If infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, healthy children have a very low risk of being hospitalized or dying.  A U.S. state data report published by the American Academy of Pediatrics on Feb. 3, 2022 found that out of about 1.2 million COVID-related hospitalizations, only three percent were children. Out of 821,369 reported COVID deaths in the U.S., 828 of those deaths or .01 percent were in children.110

2. ARE THERE EFFECTIVE WAYS TO PREVENT OR TREAT COMPLICATIONS OF COVID DISEASE?

One of the great tragedies of the coronavirus pandemic over the past two years has been that very few drugs and effective medical protocols have been approved by the government to help people prevent or recover from the SARS-CoV-2 infection.  About 95 percent of the public funds appropriated by the U.S. and other governments to fund the global response to the coronavirus pandemic were given to multi-national drug companies to develop and deliver vaccines, while only five percent was spent on exploring therapies to treat COVID disease.111   There are still very few FDA-approved drugs or therapies available for doctors to treat COVID disease.

Most of the anti-viral COVID drugs approved by the FDA under an EUA are very expensive, 112 113 114 and there are unanswered questions about risks and whether they work very well.115 116 117 118  In early 2020, practicing physicians searching for ways to help people with COVID began repurposing already licensed drugs for off-label use, a common practice that has been allowed under FDA law for many years. 119

Some Doctors Use Repurposed Licensed Drugs to Treat COVID

Some of the more affordable licensed drugs that have been repurposed by physicians to treat COVID over the past two years include the Nobel award winning anti-parasitic, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory drug Ivermectin. 120 121 122 123 124 125 Vitamins, minerals and supplements that have been used to help prevent or address COVID complications include the Vitamins D, 126 127 C, 128 and B complex; 129 magnesium; 130 quercetin; 131 132 melatonin, 133 curcumin, 134 zinc, 135 NAC, 136 probiotics, 137 Omega 3s, 138 glutathione 139 and aspirin.  140

As with all drugs and supplements, it is important to have a knowledgeable doctor direct treatment in the appropriate doses and for the right length of time, because what may work and is safe at one stage of the disease may not be during another stage.  The Front Line Covid-19 Critical Care Alliance (FLCCCA) 141 and World Council for Health. 142 are two groups of doctors who have developed COVID-19 treatment protocols that are not endorsed by government health officials but are being used by a number of health professionals around the world to treat adults and children with COVID.

High Mortality Rate for COVID Patients Hospitalized in US

Sad Doctor

With an average 38 percent mortality rate for seriously ill COVID patients admitted to U.S. hospitals in 2020,143 and with COVID patients who are put on a ventilator experiencing a 45 to 85 percent mortality rate, 144 145 146 it is no wonder independent doctors have been exploring options for reducing COVID complications and keeping patients out of hospitals. Yet, these doctors are being criticized by public health officials discouraging the use of repurposed licensed drugs like Ivermectin 147 and over-the-counter supplements 148 that peer reviewed studies have shown either prevent severe disease and improve, or have the potential to improve, survival.  149 Medical boards in some states are trying remove the medical licenses from those doctors, 150 and it can be difficult to find a doctor in the U.S. willing to depart from the few government approved medical protocols for treating COVID. 151

 The National Institutes of Health warns that:152

Research hasn’t clearly shown that any dietary supplement helps prevent COVID-19 or can decrease the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. Only vaccines and medications can prevent COVID-19 and treat its symptoms.”

No Drugs Specifically Approved by FDA for Treatment of COVID-19 in Children

The only guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control for treatment of children with COVID are dated December 2020 and state, “Currently, there are no drugs specifically approved by the FDA for treatment of COVID-19 in children.” 153 NIH has a  child treatment guide, which states that “Most children with SARS-CoV-2 infection will not require any specific therapy” and “There are limited data on the pathogenesis and clinical spectrum of COVID-19 disease in children.” It goes on to say that:

“There are no pediatric data from placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials and limited data from observational studies to inform the development of pediatric-specific recommendations for the treatment of COVID-19.” 154

After lockdowns and forced masking and a year that saw many Americans subjected to mandatory COVID vaccination to enter public spaces and keep their jobs, it is very sad that government officials have done so little to investigate and approve therapies to address COVID disease. One political explanation is that under FDA regulations, drug companies cannot receive emergency use authorization to distribute fast tracked experimental vaccines (or drugs) if there are “adequate, approved, and available alternatives.” 155

3. HOW EFFECTIVE IS PFIZER’S COVID VACCINE?

Alarm

After the coronavirus pandemic was declared by public health officials in early 2020 and governments asked drug companies to fast track development of experimental COVID vaccines, the FDA issued guidelines assuring the companies that vaccine trials would only have to demonstrate “at least 50 percent” efficacy in preventing severe COVID-19 disease. There was no requirement for companies to prove their COVID vaccines prevent infection and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. 156 157 Perhaps that is one reason why the vaccines are called COVID vaccines and not SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

But the general public did not and still does not understand the difference. That is because for more than a century, people have been carefully taught to believe that a vaccine produces artificial immunity in the body to prevent transmission of contagious diseases to other people. 158

CDC Changed Definition of “Vaccine” and “Vaccination” to Remove Reference to “Immunity”

CDC officials frequently have referred to vaccines as “immunizations.” 159 But in 2021, the CDC suddenly changed its definition of “vaccine” from “a product that stimulates a person’s immune system to produce immunity to a specific disease” to “a preparation that is used to stimulate the body’s immune response against diseases.” 160 The Merriam Webster Dictionary also changed its definition of “vaccine” to eliminate the concept that a vaccine stimulates “immunity” and replaced it with the concept that vaccines create an “immune response.”161

CDC

Up until now, the words “vaccine” and “vaccination” have been synonymous with creating “artificial immunity” in humans and animals. 162  The rewriting of that definition to admit that vaccines cannot be presumed to confer immunity - only modify the person’s immune response - is stunning because mandatory vaccination laws historically have been based on the common belief that all infants and children must get vaccinated to create “herd immunity” and prevent the transmission of contagious diseases within a community.163 164

If the definition of “vaccine” and “vaccination” no longer includes the concept of immunity, 165 then the definitions of vaccine “efficacy” and “effectiveness” have been forever changed as well.166 167

Public Misled Into Believing that Pfizer COVID Vaccine Reliably Prevents SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Transmission

To obtain the EUA in late 2020, Pfizer published clinical trial data involving about 43,000 participants over age 16, with more than 21,000 of them injected with the company’s experimental mRNA Covid vaccine. Pfizer said the data showed that two doses of the vaccine achieved a 95 percent efficacy for preventing severe COVID disease.168 169 Most mainstream media reports publicizing the Pfizer clinical trial results misled the public into believing that a 95 percent “efficacy” rate meant the vaccine reliably prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection. 170   Americans obeying mask mandates put into place before the vaccine was released, assumed that they would be able to ditch the mask and stop social distancing once they got vaccinated. 171

But in early 2021 when CDC officials did not back away from mask mandates for vaccinated persons, people started suspecting something was wrong about that assumption. Fully vaccinated people were told to keep the masks on and socially distance like unvaccinated people. 172

The logical question was: why do fully vaccinated people have to worry about getting infected or infecting other people?

The answer to that question became obvious when study after study published in the medical literature since December 2020 showed that two or three doses of Pfizer’s mRNA COVID vaccine does not reliably prevent symptomatic or asymptomatic infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the vaccine has a very short shelf life for protection against COVID disease, waning within a few months of vaccination. 173 174 175 While that reality sets in, studies are revealing that naturally acquired immunity from the new coronavirus infection is broad and long lasting, 176 177 178 179 180 perhaps two years or more. 181

More COVID Booster Shots or Annual Re-Vaccination?

Mass Vaccination

In fact, within four months of Pfizer’s COVID vaccine being approved by FDA for distribution, in April 2021 the company’s CEO called for a third shot – a booster dose – and suggested it was possible vaccinated people would have to get revaccinated every year. 182  Seven months later, the FDA dutifully approved the Pfizer booster shot for emergency use by everyone over 18 years old, 183 and on Jan. 3, 2022, expanded the EUA to allow a third booster shot for children as young as 12 years old. 184

Now there is talk about a fourth booster shot. 185 And the Pfizer CEO is once again calling for annual COVID vaccinations in the future. 186

On Feb. 1, 2022, Pfizer applied for an EUA to give its COVID vaccine to infants and young children between six months and five years old. 187 But, within 10 days, the request was suddenly withdrawn after indications that two three microgram doses of the vaccine did not prevent COVID disease symptoms in that age group and a third dose would be required to demonstrate efficacy.  188 189

4. HOW REACTIVE IS THE PFIZER VACCINE AND ARE THERE SERIOUS RISKS?

After the FDA gave emergency use permission to Pfizer in December 2020 to distribute their COVID vaccine, the nonprofit group Public Health and Medical Professionals for Transparency filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request for the FDA to immediately release 450,000 pages of Pfizer vaccine testing data that the agency relied upon to grant the EUA. FDA officials refused the request, claiming it would take them 75 years to release all the trial data to the public. A lawsuit was filed and, on Jan 6, 2022, a Texas federal judge ordered the FDA to release 55,000 pages every 30 days until all the requested pages were made public. 190

FOIA Lawsuit

The need for full public disclosure was reinforced by an allegation by a whistleblower, who had worked for a subcontractor involved in the first COVID vaccine clinical trial Pfizer conducted in 2020. She charged that there were serious irregularities in the trial, including falsification of data, lack of monitoring of trial participants after vaccination and failure to immediately follow up of patients who experienced adverse events. 191

Questions About Pfizer COVID Vaccine Safety Testing, Lack of Transparency

Pfizer has been haunted by questions about what it does and does not know about the reactivity and long-term side effects of its COVID vaccine ever since the FDA granted emergency use authorization after only nine months of testing. 192 193 194 To demonstrate safety, drug companies historically have been required to first test the experimental vaccine for toxicity in animals, followed up by Phase 1 and 2 human clinical trials to test the vaccine on a few hundred volunteers for detection of common side effects; then progress to Phase 3 trials that involve thousands of people to further identify potential serious reactions. 195 Although Pfizer did publish a few small animal studies testing its mRNA COVID vaccine on mice, rats and monkeys, most of the focus was on showing the vaccine was effective, not that it was safe. 196 197 198 199

COVID Panel

To speed up the COVID vaccine testing process, FDA allowed Pfizer and other drug companies to conduct some of the animal and human clinical studies simultaneously, instead of sequentially. 200 201  To further accelerate approval, FDA also allowed companies to provide testing data from previous research on other types of experimental mRNA vaccines as preliminary proof that COVID mRNA vaccines were effective and safe, even though those other mRNA vaccines were never licensed. 202

Majority of Participants in Pfizer COVID Vaccine Clinical Trials Experienced Local or Systemic Adverse Events

In December 2020, Pfizer published results of a Phase 2/3 randomized saline placebo controlled human clinical trial in a bid to be the first company to obtain Emergency Use Authorization from the FDA to distribute a COVID vaccine for mass use.  The company tested two 30 microgram doses of the vaccine given 21 days apart to about 21,700 healthy volunteers aged 16 and older who had not been previously diagnosed with COVID, and followed them up for between seven days and several months after the second dose to identify common and serious adverse events. 203 The majority of vaccinated participants experienced a local or systemic reaction, with younger people more often reporting side effects like pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue, fever and swollen lymph glands that occurred more often after the second dose and lasted for several days but then resolved, according to Pfizer. The few serious adverse events recorded after vaccination in the trial, such as cardiac arrythmia and a death from cardiac arrest, were dismissed by investigators as unrelated to the vaccine.  204

Injection Reaction

In 2021, Pfizer published results of Phase 2/3 clinical trials testing two 30 microgram doses of its COVID vaccine on about 1,100 healthy 12 to 15 year olds, 205 and another one that tested two 10 microgram doses on about 1,500 healthy five to 11 year olds, who had never been diagnosed with COVID.206 The children were followed up for seven  days, one month and six months. For the five to 11 year old children in the Phase 2/3 clinical trial who got the Pfizer COVID vaccine, researchers reduced the dose from 30 micrograms to 10 micrograms in an effort to lower the incidence of systemic reactions like fever.

On the CDC website in a summary of Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine reactions and adverse events, the CDC states that within seven days of vaccination over 90 percent of study participants aged 12 to 15 years reported at least one local or systemic reaction and among child study participants aged 5 to 11 years old, about 86 percent reported at least one local reaction and about 66 percent reported at least one systemic reaction like fever, chills, fatigue, headache, new or worsened muscle pain or swollen lymph nodes. 207

Pfizer Unblinded COVID Vaccine Trials and Vaccinated Placebo Participants

Although Pfizer says it plans to follow up clinical trial participants of all ages for two years, by March 2021 the company had unblinded the study and offered the COVID vaccine to placebo participants, which scientifically compromises evaluations and comparisons of long-term health problems in vaccinated versus unvaccinated participants. 208 209 The unblinding of a clinical trial while follow up of participants is ongoing has never been done before – it is unprecedented.210

Vaccination

In those Phase 2-3 trials, including a six-month follow-up trial, 211 and from anecdotal experiences reported by those who have gotten the Pfizer vaccine,212 it is obvious that the mRNA COVID vaccine is quite reactive. The majority of vaccinated people, especially if they are younger and after receiving a second dose, 213 experience acute reactions like injection site pain, fever, headache, fatigue, swollen lymph glands and body discomfort sometimes severe enough to require a day or two of recovery, which can include needing to stay home from work.214 One CDC official commented early on that, “People should be prepared to have pain” following vaccination, suggesting that pain is a sign that “It’s your body building an immune response to the protein that is mimicking the disease." 215

Other doctors point out that strong reaction symptoms like high fevers, chills, headache, joint and muscle aching, and disabling fatigue are evidence of an inflammatory response mounted by the innate immune system and that antibodies are later generated by the adaptive part of the immune system.216  217 It has long been recognized that strong reactions to pharmaceutical products can be a reason to exercise caution, especially with repeat doses.  218 219 220 221 222

Serious Blood, Cardiac and Brain Disorders Develop After Pfizer COVID Vaccinations

Since the Pfizer vaccine was released under an EUA, there have been serious blood, cardiac and brain disorders reported in the medical literature, and also by people who have received the vaccine. 223 224 225 226 Among the more serious are immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 227 which causes internal bleeding because the immune system attacks platelets and the blood cannot clot; heart inflammation that can cause a variety of cardiac problems; 228  and immune mediated inflammatory neurological disorders 229 230 like Guillain Barre Syndrome, 231 Bell’s Palsy 232 and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. 233 234

CDC officials have acknowledged only two major serious reactions related to Comirnaty vaccine: (1) anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction also known as shock that has symptoms like trouble breathing, swelling of the tongue and throat, hives and drop in blood pressure; 235 236 and (2) heart inflammation, which is commonly diagnosed as myocarditis or pericarditis with symptoms like chest pain, fast beating, fluttering or pounding heart and shortness of breath. 237

Inflammation of the Heart (Myocarditis/Pericarditis) Reported After Pfizer COVID Vaccinations

Inflammation of the heart is not a trivial complication, whether it is caused by an infection or a vaccine. Myocarditis is inflammation of the cardiac muscle and is more often seen in infants and teenagers, but can occur at any age, especially after a viral infection. 238 Myocarditis and pericarditis, which is inflammation of the tissue surrounding the heart, are thought to be largely immune-mediated and in serious cases, can lead to heart rhythm disorders, heart damage, heart failure and death.

Every year, heart disease kills nearly 660,000 Americans – one in four. It is the leading cause of death in the United States among men and women of all races, costing the nation 363 billion dollars a year. 239

Inflammation

Myocarditis is a known complication of smallpox vaccine 240 and has been reported after influenza vaccine 241 and now is being reported after the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines. 242 243 A controlled study using large national healthcare databases from the US Department of Veterans Affairs found that individuals who had acute COVID-19 disease are at increased risk of many types of cardiovascular problems, including myocarditis and pericarditis; heart rhythm disorders; heart failure; ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease that can cause stroke and thromboembolic disease, or deep vein thrombosis involving blood clots. 244 Although researchers said the greatest risk for COVID-related heart inflammation was in unvaccinated persons, the myocarditis risks were increased even for vaccinated people who got COVID.

A descriptive study conducted by CDC researchers analyzed reports to the federal Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database from December 2020 to August 2021 and found that crude reporting rates of myocarditis within seven days of mRNA vaccinations were higher than expected across multiple age groups and in both women and men. 245 The rates of myocarditis cases were highest after the second dose in adolescent males, with about 70 cases of myocarditis reported per million doses of the Pfizer COVID vaccine in 12 to 15 year old males and about 106 myocarditis cases per million doses in males 16 to 17 years old. Most myocarditis symptoms appeared to occur and resolve more quickly after vaccination than after viral illness. Still, the researchers admitted that, “the risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear.”

Blood Clotting and Blood Vessel Disorders Reported After Pfizer COVID Vaccinations

Blood clotting and blood vessel disorders have also been reported after receiving Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine. One self-controlled case series study looked at patient records of 29 million people vaccinated in England and hospitalized between December 2020 and April 2021. Nine million patients in the health records database got the Pfizer vaccine and researchers discovered an increased risk for blood clotting and blood vessel disorders within 15 to 21 days of vaccination that can lead to death. 246 The conclusion was that after receiving the Pfizer COVID mRNA vaccine, there are increased risks for arterial thromboembolism, which is a blood clot in an artery that stops the flow of blood to an organ or another part of the body; 247 and for ischemic stroke, which is when a blood clot cuts off blood supply to the brain and brain cells begin to die within minutes; 248 and for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), which is when a blood clot forms in the brain’s venous sinuses and prevents blood from draining out of the brain. 249 The researchers pointed out that these blood clotting and blood vessel disorders also are complications of SARS-CoV-2 infections and occur more frequently in seriously ill patients testing positive for COVID than after COVID vaccination.

Over One Million COVID Vaccine Reaction Reports Filed with U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

VAERS

As of Feb. 4, 2022, there were over 1.1 million adverse event reports following COVID-19 vaccinations filed with the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System known as VAERS that was created under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986.250   251 252 253  COVID vaccine-related reaction reports represent more than 50 percent of the nearly two million total adverse event reports that have been made to VAERS for all federally recommended vaccines since the vaccine reaction reporting system became operational in 1990. It is estimated that only between one and 10 percent of vaccine adverse events that occur in the U.S. are reported to VAERS. 254 255

Using MedAlerts, an independent search engine for VAERS established in 2003, I conducted a search the first week in February 2022 and found that about 624,000 of the COVID vaccine adverse event reports were associated with the Pfizer Comirnaty vaccine, 256 including over 130,000 events categorized as “serious,” 257 and about 15,500 deaths. 258 259 A portion of these reports have been filed by residents of other countries who have received the Pfizer COVID vaccine, and federal health officials warn that there is no proof of causation for any given vaccine adverse event report filed with VAERS. 260

If your doctor refuses to report a serious health problem following vaccination to VAERS that you or your child have suffered, go to NVIC.org to learn how you can report it yourself.

Very Strong Inflammatory Responses Associated with mRNA COVID Vaccine

What is it about the Pfizer mRNA vaccine that makes it so reactive?  

Because the Comirnaty vaccine was fast tracked to licensure and all animal and human clinical trial data have not been fully released to the public, there has been speculation about the potential biological mechanisms for vaccine induced inflammatory disorders affecting the heart vessels and brain and other parts of the body.

The main concern about the Comirnaty vaccine’s reactivity is centered on the fact it uses a new mRNA technology platform that pushes synthetic mRNA coated with lipid nanoparticles into the body’s cells to force cells to produce the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This is the first mRNA vaccine injected into humans on a mass basis and the first one using a lipid nanoparticle delivery system. 261

A search of the medical literature and mainstream media articles quickly reveals that two years before Pfizer and Moderna got an EUA to distribute their mRNA vaccines, academic researchers warned of potential safety issues with the platform, like local and systemic inflammation; stimulation of hyper-inflammatory immune responses causing chronic inflammation and autoimmunity; 262 and the presence of extracellular RNA that may cause edema and the formation of blood clots. 263 The lipid nanoparticles that coat the synthetic mRNA in COVID vaccines can be highly inflammatory, as one recent study in mice demonstrated. 264 265 This is the first human vaccine to include lipid nanoparticles and there are outstanding questions about biodistribution in the body and if they can accumulate in different organs of the body like the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys and perhaps crosses the blood brain barrier. 266 267 268 269 270

There has been a debate about whether lipid nanoparticle coated mRNA that provokes cells to generate the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein ends up in the ovaries and could potentially affect fertility, with one of the inventors of mRNA technology and other scientists saying it could happen and other scientists saying it cannot. 271 272 At the same time there is an investigation going on in Europe about menstrual irregularities and spontaneous bleeding in menopausal women who have gotten mRNA vaccines. 273 274

Systemic Reaction

There are also questions about antibody dependent enhancement (ADE), 275 276 which could make certain people who already have coronavirus antibodies because they got vaccinated or had a previous infection more susceptible to severe COVID disease if they are infected or re-infected with SARS-CoV-2.  Public health officials disagree that COVID vaccine can cause antibody dependent enhancement, maintaining that vaccinated people who get COVID have milder, not more severe, disease. 277

Questions About Few Contraindications, Giving COVID Vaccine with Other Vaccines, Long Term Safety

There are questions about the almost total absence of contraindications, which means reasons not to give the Comirnaty vaccine, and recommendations to give another dose after a previous reaction. 278 Then there is the lack of published evidence for the blanket recommendation that it is safe to give Comirnaty vaccine at the same time with all other government recommended vaccines. 279 280

At the end of the day, the biggest safety concern about Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine being given to children is that it just has not been studied long enough to determine if it will negatively affect the long term health of children.

Eminent scientists and doctors in the U.S. and around the world have been challenging official narratives about COVID and COVID-19 vaccines and asking all the right questions. 281 282 A U.S. Senator has held panel discussions on Capitol Hill to give a voice to these scientists and to those who have been injured by COVID vaccines or have had their informed consent rights violated. 283 Americans all across the country have been defending civil liberties and informed consent rights in many different kinds of public forums, even as they face censorship and abuse from those who are trying to silence the public conversation about vaccination, health and autonomy. 284 285

Concern About COVID Vaccine Being Mandated for Infants and Children

School Mandates

In closing, it is important to remember that the COVID-19 vaccine is the 17th vaccine U.S. health officials now direct doctors to give to children as young as five years old. 286 When the FDA gives Pfizer the green light to distribute Comirnaty to children younger than that, the vaccine will be given to six-month old babies. After 40 years of monitoring the science, policy, law and ethics of vaccination, my greatest concern is that this new vaccine eventually will be mandated for all infants and children, just like almost all vaccines that industry has created in the past century have been mandated.

We are responsible for protecting our children from harm, our children, who are now the most chronically ill and disabled children in the history of our nation. Two in five children between six and 17 years old suffer with some kind of inflammatory immune or brain disorder like asthma, diabetes and epilepsy, 287 and one child in six is developmentally delayed, 288 but there are no credible explanations coming from public health officials for why so many of our children are growing up sick and disabled and face a lifetime of chronic poor health.

Debate About Vaccination Is More Than 200 Years Old

Before the current public debate about COVID vaccine, there have been public debates about the wisdom of giving children many other vaccines that were very reactive. I joined with parents of DPT vaccine injured children to launch the modern vaccine safety and informed consent movement in 1982 because we wanted the toxic, highly inflammatory whole cell pertussis vaccine that had harmed our children taken off the market. 289 290 We followed mothers and fathers in the 19th century, who protested the reactivity of the smallpox vaccine. 291 292 Our activism in the late 20th century was followed by parents speaking out in the early 1990s about what happened to their children after being given the first genetically engineered vaccine for hepatitis B, 293 294 295 followed by young mothers and fathers in the early 21st century once again asking government, industry and the medical establishment to expand knowledge about vaccine side effects and who is at highest risk. 296 297 298

NVIC Advocates

The charged debates about flawed vaccine science and the violation of the human rights inherent in mandatory vaccination laws have not changed in two hundred years. The fact that the debate about vaccination will not go away - no matter how much money and political power is thrown at it to make it go away – only confirms the universal need for it.

Protect Your Moral and Legal Right to Make Voluntary Vaccination Decisions  

As a mother, you have the moral right and must have the legal right to gather as much information as you can about COVID disease and the COVID vaccine, consult with a trusted health professional, and then follow your conscience and your gut instincts when making a decision about whether or not your child should get vaccinated - without being coerced or sanctioned by anyone for the decision you make. 299

If you want to work in your state to protect your legal right to make a voluntary decision about vaccination, go to NVICAdvocacy.org and become a registered user of the free NVIC Advocacy Portal so you can stay informed about good or bad vaccine bills moving in your state and take action. Last year, after NVIC worked with families across the country to successfully hold back state COVID vaccine mandates after the federal government issued strict vaccine mandates for both federal and private company employees, about 20 states passed laws in some way prohibiting COVID vaccine mandates or vaccine passports. Not one state legislature passed a law mandating the COVID vaccine, even as Governors and local state officials in a few states enacted COVID vaccine mandates without getting legislature approval. 300

Sign up for NVIC’s texting service and get NVIC’s weekly journal newspaper – The Vaccine Reaction – in your email box to stay up to date on breaking news. 301 Read and download vaccine education information from NVIC.org and share it with your friends, family, legislators and thought leaders in your community.

Be the one who never has to say, you did not do today what you could have done to change tomorrow.

It’s your health, your family, your choice. And our mission continues: No forced vaccination. Not in America.

References:

1 Schloppe-Sullivan S. Dads are more involved in parenting, yes, but moms still put in more work. The Conversation Feb. 2, 2017.

2 Carrazana C. Moms spent the equivalent of a full-time job on child care last year – while working at the same time. The 19th Aug. 3, 2021.

3 Bauer L, Estep S, Yea W. Time waited for no mom in 2020. Brookings Institute July 22, 2021.

4 NPR. COVID-19 vaccine for young kids could be ready this month. Feb. 1, 2022.

5 Kimbell S. Pfizer delays its FDA application to expand its Covid vaccine to kids under 5 until April. CNBC Feb 11, 2022.

6 Pfizer, Inc and BioNTech SE. Pfizer and BioNTech Initiate Rolling Submission for Emergency Use Authorization of Their COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 6 Months Through 4 Years of Age Following Request from U.S. FDA. Feb. 1, 2022.

7 Teran R, Mitre E, Vaca M et al. Immune system development during early childhood in tropical Latin America: Evidence for the age-dependent down regulation of the innate immune response. Clin Immunol 2011; 128(3): 299-310.

8 Brown TT, Jernigan TL. Brain development during the preschool years. Neuropsychol Rev 2012; 22(4): 313-333.

9 Bilbo SD, Schwartz JM. The Immune System and Developmental Programming of Brain and Behavior. Front Neuroendocrinol 2012; 33(3): 267-286.

10 US Department of Health and Human Services. Determination that a public health emergency exists. Jan. 31, 2020.

11 Weintraub K, Weise E. Federal spending on COVID-19 vaccine candidates tops $9 billion, spread among 7 companies. USA Today Aug. 8, 2020.

12 Pronker ES, Weenen TC, Commandeur H et al. Risk in Vaccine Research and Development Quantified.  PLOS One 2013; 8(3).

13 Doxzen K, Prichep E. mRNA vaccines – here’s everything you need to know. World Economic Forum July 1, 2021.

14 Petri W. COVID-19 vaccines were developed in record time – but are these game-changers safe? The Conversation Nov. 20, 2020

15 FDA. FDA Takes Key Action in Fight Against COVID-19 By Issuing Emergency Use Authorization for First COVID-19 Vaccine. Dec. 11, 2020.

16 Arthur R. Inside the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine trial: ‘We knew the world was watching and waiting for results.’ BioPharma Mar. 3, 2021.

17 US Food and Drug Administration. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for Emergency Use in Adolescents in Another Important Action in Fight Against Pandemic. May 10, 2021.

18 US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Authorizes Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for Emergency Use in Children 5 through 11 Years of Age. Oct. 29, 2021.

19 Cohen S. The fastest vaccine in history. UCLA Health Dec. 10, 2020.

20 Iwry J. From 9/11 to COVID-19: A Brief History of FDA Emergency Use Authorization. Harvard Law Petrie-Flom Center Jan. 26, 2021.

21 US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves first COVID-19 Vaccine. Aug. 23, 2021.

22 American Academy of Pediatrics. Summary of data publicly reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Feb 2, 2022.

23 O’Shaughnessy JA. Letter to Amit Patel, Pfizer Inc. amending EUA to authorize use of COMIRNATY (Covid-19 Vaccine, mRNA) as a single booster dose in individuals 12 through 15 years of age. FDA Jan. 3, 2022.

24 Sherkow JS, Quellette LL et al. What’s the Difference Between Vaccine Approval (BLA) and Authorization (EUA)? The Petrie-Flom Center June 15, 2021.

25 Siri A. Federal law prohibits employers and others from requiring vaccination with a Covid-19 vaccine distributed under an EUA. STAT Feb. 23, 2021.

26 Sherkow JS, Quellette LL et al. What’s the Difference Between Vaccine Approval (BLA) and Authorization (EUA)? The Petrie-Flom Center June 15, 2021.

27 Northwestern Institute for Policy Research. Over Half of Parents Report Concerns About COVID-19 Vaccines for Their Kids. Jan. 4, 2022.

28 CDC. COVID-19 Vaccines Work. Dec. 23, 2021.

29 McKenna S. Vaccines Need Not Completely Stop COVID Transmission to Curb the Pandemic. Scientific American Jan. 18, 2021.

30 Dawood FS, Porucznik CA, Veguilla V et al. Incidence Rates, Household Infection Risk, and Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Children and Adults in Utah and New York City, New York. JAMA Pediatr 2022 176(1): 59-67.

31 Gazit S, Shlezinger R, Perez G et al. Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections. medRxiv Aug. 25, 2021.

32 Kojima N, Klausner JD. Protective immunity after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The Lancet 2022; 22(1): 12-14.

33 Druckman J. Over Half of All Parents Report Concerns About COVID-19 Vaccines for Their Kids. Institute for Policy Research Jan. 4, 2022.

34 Hamel L, Sparks G, Lopes L et al. KFF COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor: January 2022 Parents and Kids Update. Kaiser Family Foundation Feb 1, 2022.

35 Fisher BL. Pediatricians Turn Well Baby Checkups Into Vaccine Battlegrounds. NVIC Newsletter Nov. 5, 2018.

36 Flanagan-Klygis EA, Sharp L, Frader JE. Dismissing the Family Who Refuses Vaccines: A Study in Pediatric Attitudes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159(11): 929-934.

37 O’Leary ST, Cataldi, JR, Lindley MC et al. Policies Among US Pediatricians Dismissing Patients for Delaying or Refusing Vaccination. JAMA 2020; 324 (11): 1105-1107.

38 LaMotte S, Thomas N. Some pediatricians refuse to treat kids of parents reject vaccines, study finds. CNN Sept. 15, 2020.

39 National Vaccine Information Center. Cry for Vaccine Freedom Wall.

40 Ault A. 11-Year-Olds Could Receive Vaccines Without Parental Consent in DCMedscape Dec. 24, 2020.

41 Council of the District of Columbia. B23-0171-Minor Consent for Vaccination Amendment Act of 2019. (Effective from Mar. 16, 2021).

42 Fisher BL. Doctors Given Power to Vaccinate Young Children Without Knowledge of Parents. NVIC Newsletter June 8, 2021.

43 Kaiser Family Foundation. State Parental Consent Laws for COVID-19 Vaccine. Oct. 11, 2021.

44 Blakemore SJ, Robbins TW. Decision-making in the adolescent brainNature Neuroscience 2012; 15: 1184-1191.

45 National Vaccine Information Center. About Us: Barbara Loe Fisher.

46 Fisher BL. Forcing Vaccination on Every Child Undermines Civil LIberties. Leaps Magazine Mar. 28, 2019.

47 Hoffjan S, Nicolae D, Ostrovnaya E et al. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects on the Development of Immune Responses in the 1st Year of Life. Am J Hum Genet 2005; 76(4): 696-704.

48 Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines. Evaluation of Biologic Mechanisms of Adverse Effects: Increased Susceptibility. Chapter 3 (p. 82). Washington, D.C. The National Academies Press 2012.

49 Bilbo SD, Schwartz JM. The Immune System and Developmental Programming of Brain and Behavior. Front Neuroendocrinol 2012; 33(3): 267-286.

50 Lazarro BP, Schneider DS. The Genetics of Immunity.  Genetics 2014; 197(2): 467-470.

51 Congressional Research Service. The PREP Act and COVID-19: Limiting Liability for Medical Countermeasures. June 19, 2020.

52 DHHS. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Frequently Asked Questions: Will the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program provide compensation to individuals injured by COVID-19 vaccine? Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA) February 2022.

53 Nir E. Informed Consent. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Jan. 16, 2019.

54 Fisher BL. The Moral Right to Conscientious, Philosophical and Personal Belief Exemption to Vaccination. Presentation to National Vaccine Advisory Committee May 2, 1997.

55 Broadbent L. Coronaviruses – a brief history. The Conversation Apr. 15, 2020.

56 Hui D. Epidemic and Emerging Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). Clin Chest Med 2017; 38(1): 71-86.

57 Braun J, Loyal L et al. SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19. Nature 2020; 587: 270-274.

58 Mayo Clinic. COVID-19 antibody testing. May 6, 2021.

59 Mouliou DS, Gourgoulianis KI. False-positive and false-negative COVID-19 cases: respiratory prevention and management strategies, vaccination, and further perspectives. Expert Rev Respir Med 2021; 1-10.

60 Fisher BL. Coronavirus Vaccines on Fast Track as WHO Declares Global Public Health Emergency. NVIC Special Report on COVID-19 Pandemic (Part 1) Feb. 5, 2020.

61 Fisher BL. COVID-19 Meltdown and Pharma’s Big Money Win. NVIC Special Report on COVID-19 Pandemic (Part 5). Apr. 1, 2020.

62  Hains T. Ezekiel Emanuel: US Must Stay Locked Down for 12-18 Months Until There’s A Vaccine. Real Clear Politics Apr. 7, 2020.

63 Lederman M, Mehlman MJ, Youngner S. Defeat COVID-19 by requiring vaccination for all. It’s not un-American, it’s patriotic. USA Today Aug. 6, 2021.

64 Crist C. Fauci: ‘Many, Many’ More Vaccine Mandates Needed to end Pandemic. WebMD Sept. 13, 2021.

65 Gates B. This organization is working to create a world without pandemics. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Jan. 18, 2022.

66 Kormann C. The Mysterious Case of the COVID-19 Lab Leak Theory. The New Yorker Oct. 12, 2021.

67 Ruiz-Medina BE, Varela-Ramirez A, Kirken RA et al. The SARS-CoV-2 origin dilemma: Zoonotic transfer or laboratory leak? BioEssays 2022; 44(1).

68 Dunleavy J. Fauci shut down lab leak theory despite scientists lending it credence, emails show. Washington Examiner Jan. 11, 2022.

69 Wade N. A Covid origin conspiracy? City Journal Jan. 23, 2022.

70 Transparency International. Lack of transparency over vaccine trials, secretive contracts and “science by press release” risks success of global COVID-19 response. May 25, 21.

71 Doshi P Will covid-19 vaccines save lives? Current trials aren’t designed to tell us. BMJ 2020; 371.

72 Brown RB. Outcome Reporting Bias in COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Clinical Trials. Medicina 2021; 57(3): 199.

73 Seneff S, Nigh G. Worse Than the Disease? Reviewing Some Possible Unintended Consequences of the mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19. International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice and Research 2021; 2(1): 38-70.

74 Taneer S, Rowhani-Farid A, Hong K et al. Transparency of COVID-19 vaccine trials: decisions without data. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine Aug. 8, 2021.

75 CDC. Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines: Hundreds of Millions of People Have Safely Received a COVID-19 Vaccine. Feb. 28, 2022.

76 Stieber Z, Jekielek J, Lee M. “Worst Experience of My Life’: Early Vaccine Adopters Suffer Injuries, Struggle to Get Proper Care. The Epoch Times Mar. 2, 2022.

77 Branswell H. The world needs COVID-19 vaccines. It may also be overestimating their power. STAT News May 22, 2020.

78 Lennon A. COVID-19 protection wanes 90 days after second Pfizer vaccine. Medical News Today Dec. 1, 2021.

79 National Institutes of Health (NIH). COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines: Special Considerations in Children. Feb. 24, 2022.

80  Kojima N, Klausner JD. Protective immunity after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The Lancet 2021; 22(1): 12-14.

81 Avery S. Children with Mild or Asymptomatic COVID Have Strong Antibodies Months Later. Duke Health July 16, 2021.

82 Gazit S, Shlezinger R, Perez G et al. Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections. medRxiv Aug. 25, 2021.

83 Balachandran H, Phetsouphanh C et al. Maintenance of broad neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells 1 year post-infection is predicted by SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cell responses. Cell Rep 2022; 38(6).

84 Kulldorff M, Gupta S, Bhattacharya J. The Great Barrington Declaration. Oct. 4, 2020.

85 Joffe AR, Redman D. The SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in High Income Countries Such as Canada: A Better Way Forward Without Lockdowns. Front Public Health Nov. 22, 2021.

86 Herby J, Jonung L, Hanke SH. A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Lockdowns on COVID-19 Mortality. Johns Hopkins Institute for Applied Economics, Global Health and the Study of Business Enterprise January 2022.

87 Brosseau LM, Sietsema M. COMMENTARY: Masks for all for COVID-19 not based on sound data. CIDRAP Apr. 1, 2020.

88 Fisher BL. COVID Vaccine Mandates Strongly Opposed in Europe, US as Vaccine Failures Increase. The Vaccine Reaction Aug. 2, 2021.

89 Porat T, Burnell R, Calvo RA et al. “Vaccine Passports” May Backfire: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in UK and Israel on Willingness to Get Vaccinated against COVID-19. Vaccines 2021; 9(8).

90 Diamond F. Cloth Masks Are Useless Against COVID-19 (Redux): Omicron Version. Infection Control Today Jan. 12, 2022.

91 Sawyer S, Barbachano-Guerrero A, Warren C. Alpha then delta and now omicron – 6 questions answered as COVID-19 cases once again surge across the globe. The Conversation Jan. 21, 2022.

92 Goodman B. New Studies Suggest Omicron Infections Are Less Severe Than Delta Ones. WebMD Dec. 22, 2021.

93 Altarwneh HN, Hasan MR, Ayoub HH et al. Protection against the Omicron Variant from Previous SARS-CoV-2 Infection. N Engl J Med Feb. 9, 2022.

94 Bean M. US COVID-19 deaths down 5.9% this week: 9 CDC findings. Becker’s Hospital Review Feb 11, 2022.

95 Becker’s Hospital Review. States ranked by COVID-19 death rates. Feb. 14, 2022.

96 Geggel L. The Odds of Dying. Live Science Feb. 9, 2016.

97 Adams ML, Katz DL, Grandpre J. Population-Based Estimates for Chronic Conditions Affecting Risk for Complications from Coronavirus Disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26(8): 1831-1833.

98 Kompaniyets L, Pennington AF, Goodman AB et al. Underlying Medical Conditions and Severe Illness Among 540,667 Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19, March 2020-March 2021. Prev Chronic Dis 2021; 18:E66.

99 CDC. Managing Chronic Health Conditions. Oct. 20, 2021.

100 Kompaniyets L, Agathis N, Nelson JM et al. Underlying Medical Conditions Associated with Severe COVID-19 Illness Among Children. JAMA Netw Open 2021; 4(6).

101 Ibid.

102 CDC. COVID-19: People with Certain Medical Conditions. Feb. 25, 2022.

103 American Academy of Pediatrics and Children’s Hospital Association. Children and COVID-19: State Data Report. (Summary of State-Level Data; Appendix Table 1; Appendix Table 2B and Appendix Table 2C). Feb. 3, 2022.

104 Dawood FS, Porucznik CA, Veguilla V et al. Incidence Rates, Household Infection Risk, and Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Children and Adults in Utah and New York City, New York. JAMA Pediatr 2022 176(1): 59-67.

105 Milstone A. COVID in Babies and Kids: Symptoms and Prevention. Johns Hopkins Medicine Dec. 8, 2021.

106 Olbei M, Hautefort E, Modos D et al. SARS-COV-2 Causes a Different Cytokine Response Compared to Other Cytokine Storm-Causing Respiratory Viruses in Severely Ill Patients. Front Immunol Mar. 1, 2021.

107 Ibid.

108 Aiyegbusi OL, Hughes SE, Turner G et al. Symptoms, complications and management of long COVID: a review. J R Soc Med 2021; 114(9): 428-442.

109 Molteni E, Sudre CH, FCanas LS et al. Illness duration and symptom profile in symptomatic UK school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2. The Lancet 2022; 5(1): 708-718.

110 American Academy of Pediatrics and Children’s Hospital Association. Children and COVID-19: State Data Report. (Summary of State-Level Data; Appendix Table 1; Appendix Table 2B and Appendix Table 2C). Feb. 3, 2022.

111 Hoecklin M. 93 Billion Euro Spent by Public Sector On COVID Vaccines and Therapeutics in 11 Months, Research Finds. Health Policy Watch Dec. 1, 2021.

112 FDA. Understanding the Regulatory Terminology of Potential Preventions and Treatments for COVID-19. Oct. 22, 2020.

113 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Side-by-Side Overview of Outpatient Therapies Authorized for Treatment of Mild-Moderate COVID-19. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response Jan. 10, 2022.

114 Svab P. Approved and Non-FDA Approved COVID-19 Treatments. The Epoch Times Feb 7, 2022.

115 World Health Organization. WHO recommends against the use of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients. Nov. 20, 2020.

116 Mayo Clinic. Remdesivir (Intravenous) also known as Veklury.

117 Lloyd EC, Gandhi TN, Petty LA. Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19. JAMA Feb. 5, 2021. 325(10): 1015.

118 Brobst B, Borger J. Benefits and Risks of Administering Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Coronavirus (COVID-19). StatPearls Dec 3, 2021.

119 FDA. Understanding Unapproved Use of Approved Drugs "Off Label." Feb. 5, 2018.

120 National Institutes of Health. Ivermection. Feb. 11, 2021

121 Rajter JC, Sherman MS, Fatteh N et al. Use of Ivermectin is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019. Chest Journal Oct. 12, 2020.

122 Heidary F, Gharebaghi R. Ivermectin: A systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen. The Journal of Antibiotics 2020; 73: 593-602.

123 Bryant A, Lawrie TA, Dowswell T et al. Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of CVOVID-19 Infections: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines. Am J Ther 2021; 28(4)

124 Reis G, dos Santos Moreira-Silva EA et al. Effect of early treatment with fluvoxamine on risk of emergency care and hospitalization among patients with COVID-19: the TOGETHER randomised, platform clinical trial. The Lancet 2022; 10(1).

125 Ramakrishnan S, Niclau DV, Langford B et al. Inhaled budenoside in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomized controlled trial. The Lancet 2021; 9(7): 763-772.

126 Lakkireddy M, Gadiga SG, Malathi RD et al. Impact of daily high dose oral vitamin D in patients with COVID-19 disease. Scientific Reports 2021; 11.

127 Chiodini I, Gatti D, Suranna D et al. Vitamin D Status and SARS-oV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes. Front Public Health Dec. 22, 2021.

128 Milani GP, Macchi M, Guz-Mark A. Vitamin C in the Treatment of COVID-19. Nutrients 2021; 13(4).

129 Shakoor H, Feenan J, Mikkelsen K et al. Be well: A potential role for vitamin B in COVID-19. Maturitas 2021; 144: 108-111.

130 Tang C-F, Ding H, Jiao R-Q et al. Possibility of magnesium supplementation for supportive treatment in patients with COVID-19. Eur J Pharmacol 2020; 886.

131 DiNicolantonio JJ, McCarty M, Barroso-Aranda J. Melatonin may decrease risk for and aid treatment of COVID-19 and other RNA viral infections. Open Heart 2021; 8.

132 Onal H, Arslan B et al. Treatment of COVID-19 patients with quercetin : a prospective, single center, randomized, controlled trial. Turk J Biol 2021; 45(4): 518-529.

133 Brown GM, Pandi-Perumal SR, Pupko H et al. Melatonin as an Add-On Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: Current Status. Diseases 2021; 9(3).

134 Rattis BAC, Ramos SG, Celes MRN. Curcumin as a Potential Treatment for COVID-19. Front Pharmacol 2021; 12.

135 Gordon AM, Hardigan PC. A Case-Control Study for the Effectiveness of Oral Zinc in the Prevention and Mitigation of COVID-19. Front Med Dec. 13, 2021.

136 Avdeev SN, Gaynitdinova VV et al. N-Acetylcysteine for the treatment of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients. J Infect July 9 2021.

137 Kurian SH, Unnikrishnan MK, Miraj SS et al. Probiotics in Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: Current Perspective and Future Prospects. Arch Med Res 2021; 52(6): 582-594.

138 Arnadottir H, Pawelzik SC, Wistbacka UO et al. Stimulating the Resolution of Inflammation Through Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in COVID-19: Rationale for the COVID-Omega-F Trial. Front Physiol Jan. 11, 2021.

139 Guloyan V, Oganesian B, Baghdasaryan N et al. Glutathione Supplementation as an Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19. Antioxidants (Basel) 2020; 9(10).

140 Votuganti , Bassereo PP et al. Does aspirin save lives in patients with COVID-19? Heart 2021; 108(2).

141 Marik P. An overview of the MATH+, I-MASK+ and I-RECOVER Protocols:.A Guide to the Management of COVID-19. FLCCC Alliance. Feb. 3, 2022.

142 World Council for Health. Early Covid-19 treatment guidelines: A practical approach to home-based care for healthy families. Jan. 10, 2022. 

143 Churpek MM, Gupta S, Spicer AB et al. Hospital-Level Variation in Death for Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021; 204(4): 403-411.

144 King CS, Sahjwani S, Brown AW et al. Outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 associated respiratory failure. PLOS One Nov. 23, 2020.

145 Lim ZJ, Subramaniam A, Reddy MP et al. Case Fatality Rates for Patients with COVID-19 Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation. A Meta-analysis. Am J Respir Crtic Care Med 2021; 203(1): 54-66.

146 Schuijt MTV, Schultz MJ et al. Association of intensity of ventilation with 28-day mortality in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure; insights from the PRoVENT-COVID study. Crit Care 2021; 25(283).

147 Ley J. Battle over whom to believe about ivermectin: Should off-label drugs be allowed in the fight against COVID-19? Clark County Today Sept 7, 2021.

148 National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplements in the Time of COVID-19: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Oct. 5, 2021.

149 Sen. Ron Johnson. Video Release: Sen. Ron Johnson COVID-19: A Second Opinion Panel Garners Over 800,000 Views in 24 Hours. Jan. 25, 2022.

150 Hollander Z, Berman A. Numerous complaints filed with State Medical Board over doctors and COVID-19 misinformation. Anchorage Daily News Nov. 19, 2021.

151 FDA. Emergency Use Authorization for Vaccines Explained. Nov. 20, 2020.

152 National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplements in the Time of COVID-19: Fact Sheet for Consumers. Nov. 5, 2021.

153 CDC. COVID-19: Information for Pediatric Healthcare Providers. Dec. 30, 2020.

154 National Institutes of Health (NIH). COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines: Special Considerations in Children. Feb, 24, 2022.

155 FDA. Emergency Use Authorization for Vaccines Explained. Nov. 20, 2020.

156 FDA. Development and Licensure of Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19: Guidance for Industry. Efficacy Considerations Pages 13-24. Revised June 2020.

157 Crist C. Early Vaccines Will Prevent Symptoms, Not Virus. WebMD Oct. 28, 2020.

158 Clem AS. Fundamentals of Vaccine Immunology. J Glob Infect Dis 2011; 3(1): 73-78.

159 CDC. Five Important Reasons to Vaccinate Your Child. February 2015.

160  Camero K. Why did CDC change its definition for ‘vaccine’? Agency explains move as skeptics lurk. Miami Herald Sept 27, 2021.

161  Kochi S. Fact check: Missing context in claim that Merriam-Webster changed ‘vaccine’ definition. USA Today Nov. 30, 2021.

162 Clem AS. Fundamentals of Vaccine Immunology. J Glob Infect Dis 2011; 3(1): 73-78.

163 Anderson RM, May RM. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases. Nature 1985; 318: 323-329.

164 Drew L. The case for mandatory vaccination. Nature Nov. 27, 2019.

165 CDC. Definition of Vaccination: “The Act of introducing a vaccine into the body to produce immunity to a specific disease.” Immunization: The Basics. May 16, 2018 (Archived).

166 Knight-Jones TJD, Edmond K et al. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods. Proc Biol Sci 2014; 281(1784).

167 Caddy SL. Coronavirus: few vaccines prevent infection – here’s why that’s not a problem. The Conversation Jan. 5, 2021.

168 Pfizer Inc., BioNTech SE. Pfizer and BioNTech to Submit Emergency Use Authorization Request Today to the U.S. FDA for COVID-19 Vaccine. Nov. 20, 2020.

169 Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162B2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med Dec. 10, 2020.

170 Lovelace Jr B. Pfizer says final data analysis shows Covid vaccine is 95% effective, plans to submit to FDA in days. CNBC Nov. 18, 2020.

171 Nissen N. Now that we have 2 vaccines, will life return to normal? ABC News Dec. 19, 2020.

172 Rouen R. Fact Check: CDC recommends masks in most cases even after COVID-19 vaccine. USA Today Apr. 22, 2021

173 Singanayagam A, Hakki S, Dunning J et al. Community transmission and viral load kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals in the UK: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study. Lancet Oct. 29, 2021.

174 Levin EG, Lustig Y, Cohen C et al. Waning Immune Humoral Response to BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine over 6 Months. N Engl J Med 2021; 385

175 Ferdinands JM, Rao , Dixon BE et al. Waning 2-Dose and 3-Dose Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance – VISION Network, 10 States, Aug  MMWR Feb. 11, 2022; 71.

176 Kojima N, Klausner JD. Protective immunity after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The Lancet 2021; 22(1): 12-14.

177 Abu-Raddad LJ, Bertollini R. Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection as Compared with Primary Infections. N Eng J Med 2021; 385: 2487-2489.

178 Gazit S, Shlezinger R, Perez G et al. Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections. medRxiv Aug. 25, 2021.

179 Altarwneh HN, Hasan MR, Ayoub HH et al. Protection against the Omicron Variant from Previous SARS-CoV-2 Infection. N Engl J Med Feb. 9, 2022.

180 Balachandran H, Phetsouphanh C et al. Maintenance of broad neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells 1 year post-infection is predicted by SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cell responses. Cell Rep 2022; 38(6).

181 Alejo JL, Mitchell J, Chang A et al. Prevalence and Durability of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Among Unvaccinated US Adults by History of COVID-19. JAMA Feb. 3, 2022.

182 Lovelace Jr, B. Pfizer CEO says third dose Covid vaccine dose likely needed within 12 months. CNBC Apr 15, 2021.

183 FDA. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Expands Eligibility for COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters. Nov. 19, 2021.

184 FDA. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Takes Multiple Actions to Expand Use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Jan. 3, 2022.

185 Martichoux A. 4th COVID-19 shot: Who will need another booster soon. Nexstar Media Wire Feb. 5, 2022.

186 Frazier K. Annual COVID vaccine preferable to boosters, says Pfizer CEO. Axios Jan. 22, 2022.

187 Pfizer, Inc and BioNTech SE. Pfizer and BioNTech Initiate Rolling Submission for Emergency Use Authorization of Their COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 6 Months Through 4 Years of Age Following Request from U.S. FDA. Feb. 1, 2022.

188 Neergaard L, Perrone M. In Reversal, FDA Puts Brakes on COVID Shots for Kids Under 5. Associated Press Feb. 11, 2022.

189 Hopkins JS, Armour S. Pfizer’s Covid-19 Vaccine for Kids Isn’t Working Well Against Omicron so Far, Delaying FDA Review. Wall Street Journal Feb. 18, 2022.

190 FDA News. Federal Judge Tells FDA It Must Make Public 55,000 Pages a Month of Pfizer Vaccine Data. Jan. 10, 2022.

191 Thacker P. Covid-19: Researcher blows the whistle on data integrity issues in Pfizer’s vaccine trial. BMJ 2021; 375

192 US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First COVID-19 Vaccine. Aug. 23, 2021.

193 Transparency International. Lack of transparency over vaccine trials, secretive contracts and “science by press release” risks success of global COVID-19 response. May 25, 21.

194 Taneer S, Rowhani-Farid A, Hong K et al. Transparency of COVID-19 vaccine trials: decisions without data. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine Aug. 8, 2021.

195 CDC. Ensuring the Safety of Vaccines in the United States. July 2011.

196 National Institutes of Health. The Important Role of Animal Research in mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Development. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Aug. 18, 2021.

197 Bowman CJ, Bouressam M, Campion SN et al. Lack of effects on female fertility and prenatal and postnatal offspring development in rats with BNt162b2, a mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. Reprod Toxicol 2021; 103: 28-35.

198 Vogel AB, Kanevsky I et al. BNTvaccines protect rhesus macaques from SARS-CoV-2. Nature 2021; 592: 283-289.

199 Pfizer Inc., BioNTech SE. Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Data from Preclinical Studies of mRNA-based Vaccine Candidate Against COVID-19. Sept. 9, 2020.

200 FDA. Development and Licensure of Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19: Guidance for Industry. Efficacy Considerations Pages 13-24. Revised June 2020.

201 Bell P. The lightning-fast quest for COVID vaccines – and what it means for other diseases. Nature Dec. 18, 2020.

202 FDA. Development and Licensure of Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19: Guidance for Industry. Efficacy Considerations Pages 6-9. Revised June 2020.

203 Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162B2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med Dec. 10, 2020.

204 Ibid.

205 Frenck RW, Klein NP, Kitchin N et al. Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of the BNT 162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Adolescents. N Engl J Med May 27, 2021.

206 Walter EB, Talaat KR, Sabharwal C et al. Evaluation of the BNt162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. N Engl J Med Nov 9, 2021.

207 CDC. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID -19 Vaccine Reactions and Adverse Events. Nov. 5, 2021

208 Herper M. Pfizer and BioNTech speed up timeline for offering COVID-19 vaccine to placebo volunteers. STAT News Jan. 1, 2021.

209 Harris R. Long-Term Studies of COVID-19 Vaccines Hurt by Placebo Recipients Getting Immunized. NPR Feb. 19, 2021.

210 Michigan Medicine. Leaning on Integrity: Research Scientists Unblind Participants in COVID-19 Vaccine Clinical Trials. May 19, 2021.

211 Walter EB, Talaat KR, Sabharwal C et al. Evaluation of the BNt162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. N Engl J Med Nov 9, 2021.

212 Gee J, Marquez P et al. First Month of COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Monitoring – United States, December 14, 2-2- - January 13, 2021. MMWR Feb. 26, 2021. 70(8): 283-288.

213 Ty A. Expect More Side Effects After Second COVID-19 Vaccine Dose. International Business Times Feb. 24, 2021.

214 Hendler C. Severe Reactions to COVID-19 Vaccine Close Schools in Michigan, Ohio and New York. The Vaccine Reaction Mar. 8, 2021.

215 Crow S. The CDC Says These 3 Side Effects Mean Your Vaccine Is Working. Yahoo Feb. 15, 2021.

216 Finberg R. No, vaccine side effects don’t tell you how well your immune system will protect you from COVID-19. Yahoo News Apr. 19, 2021.

217 Myashita Y, Yoshida T, Talagi Y et al. Circulating extracellular vesicle microRNAs associated with adverse reactions, proinflammatory cytokine, and antibody production after COVID-19 vaccination. npj Vaccines 2022; 7(16).

218 Bircher AJ. Symptoms and danger signs in acute drug hypersensitivity. Toxicology 2005; 209(2): 201-207.

219 Davidovici BB, Wolf R. The challenge of drug-rechallenge: Facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol 2010; 281(3): 249-253.

220 GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. Highlights of Prescribing Information for INFANRIX – diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed suspension: Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions. Nov. 20, 2019.

221 Mei R, Raschi E, Poluzzi E et al. Recurrence of pericarditis after influenza vaccination: a case report and review of the literature. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2018; 19(20).

222 Burrows A, Bartholemew T et al. Sequential contralateral facial nerve palsies following COVID-19 vaccination first and second doses. BMJ 2021; 14

223 Informed Choice Australia. Peer Reviewed Medical Papers Submitted to Variious Medical Journals, Evidencing A Multitude of Adverse Events in Covid-19 Vaccine Recipients. January 20, 2022.

224 Gill Jr, Tashijian R, Duncanson E. Autopsy Histopathologic Cardiac Findings in Two Adolescents Following the Second COVIDH-19 Vaccine Dose. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine Feb. 14, 2022.

225 Fisher BL. Miami Obstetrician Develops Bleeding Disorder, Dies After Getting COVID-19 Vaccine. The Vaccine Reaction Jan. 11, 2021.

226 Couzin-Frankel J, Vogel G. In rare cases, coronavirus vaccines may cause Long Covid-like symptoms. Science Jan. 20, 2022.

227 Jasarai RB, Shrestha DB et al. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine in an Elderly Female. Cureus 2021; 13(8).

228 McGuire R, Machingaifa F et al. Myocarditis and pericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Melbourne Vaccine Education Center Feb. 15, 2022.

229 Finsterer J. Neurological side effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Acta Neurol Scand 2022; 145(1): 509.

230 Stieber Z. US Agencies Quietly Studying Reports of Post-Vaccination Neurological Issues. The Epoch Times Feb. 20, 2022.

231 Rao SJ, Khurana S, Murthy G et al. A case of Guillain-Barre syndrome following Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine. Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2021; 11(5): 597-600.

232 Burrows A, Bartholemew T et al. Sequential contralateral facial nerve palsies following COVID-19 vaccination first and second doses. BMJ 2021; 14

233 Vogrig A, Janes F, Gigli GL et al. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after SARS-COV-2 vaccination. Clinical Neurology and Surgery 2021; 208.

234 Fragkou PC, Dimopoulou D. Serious complications of COVID-19 vaccines: A mini-review. Metabolism Open 2021; 12: 100145.

235 National Library of Medicine. Anaphylaxis. Medline Plus Feb. 19, 2022.

236 Laisvan W. COVID-19 Vaccine Anaphylaxis: Current Evidence and Future Approaches. Front Allergy Dec. 23, 2021.

237 CDC. Selected Adverse Events Reported after COVID-19 Vaccination. Feb. 15, 2022.

238 Al-Akchar M, Kiel M. Acute myocarditis. STAT Pearls July 25, 2021.

239 CDC. Heart Disease Facts. Feb. 7, 2022.

240 Halsell JS, Riddle JR, Atwood JE. Myopericarditis Following Smallpox Vaccination Among Vaccinia-Naive Military Personnel. JAMA 2003; 289(24): 3283-3289.

241 Lanza GA, Barone L, Scalone G et al. Inflammation-related effects of adjuvant influenza A vaccination on platelet activation and cardiac autonomic function. J Internal Med 2011; 269(1): 118-125.

242 Truong DT, Dionne A, Muniz JC et al. Clinically Suspected Myocarditis Temporally Related to COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents and Young Adults: Suspected Myocarditis After COVID-19 Vaccination. Circulation 2022; 145(5).

243 Lynch T. “I don’t know what else to do, or where to even go from here.” COVID-19 vaccine to blame for Southern Tier man’s death: Deputy Coroner. WETM Feb. 3, 2022.

244 Xie Y, Bowe B, Al-Aly Z et al. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19. Nature Medicine Feb. 7, 2022

245 Oster ME, Shay DK, Su JR et al. Myocarditis Cases Reported After mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccination in the US From December 2020 to August 2021. JAMA 2022; 327(4): 331-340.

246 Hippisley-Cox J, Patone M, Mei XW et al. Risk of thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism after covid-19 vaccination and SARS-COV-2 positive testing: self controlled case series study. BMJ 2021; 374.

247 National Library of Medicine. Arterial embolism. Medline Plus 2022.

248 Mayo Clinic. Ischemic Stroke. Jan. 20, 2022.

249 Johns Hopkins Medicine. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST). 2022.

250 MedAlerts. Total COVID-19 Vaccine Adverse Event Reports to VAERS as of Feb. 4, 2022.

251 FDA. VAERS Overview. Mar. 29, 2019

252 CDC. Vaccine Safety: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

253 The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Vaccine Injury Compensation Programs: National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA)/National Childhood Vaccine Injury Program (NCVIP). The History of Vaccines Jan. 17, 2018.

254 Rosenthal S, Chen R. The reporting sensitivities of two passive surveillance systems for vaccine adverse events. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 1708-9.

255 Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Inc. Electronic System for Public Health Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. AHRQ 2011.

256 MedAlerts. Found 624,579 cases where Vaccine is COVID19 and Vaccine description contains 'pfizer.' Feb. 4, 2022 release of VAERS data.

257 MedAlerts. Found 130,270 cases where Vaccine is COVID19 and Vaccine description contains 'pfizer' and Serious. Feb. 4, 2022 release of VAERS data.

258 MedAlerts. Found 15,573 cases where Vaccine is COVID19 and Vaccine description contains 'pfizer' and Patient Died. Feb. 4, 2022 release of VAERS data.

259  MedAlerts. Search the VAERS Database.

260 DHHS. VAERS Data Disclaimer.

261 Trilingiris D, Vallianou NG, Karampela I et al. Potential implications of lipid nanoparticles in the pathogenesis of myocarditis associated with the use of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Metabolism Open 2022; 13: 100159.

262 Sugimoto MA, Souse LP, Pinho V et al. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset. Frontiers in Immunology 2018; 7(160).

263 Pardi N, Hogan MJ, Porter FW, Weissman D. mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2018 (17): 261-279.

264 Ndeupen S, Qin ZX, Jacobsen S et al. The mRNA-LNP platform’s lipid nanoparticle component used in preclinical vaccine studies is highly inflammatory. bioRxiv Mar. 4, 2021.

265 Dwivedi R. Research looks at inflammatory nature of lipid nanoparticle component in mRNA vaccines. News-Medical.net May 15, 2021.

266 Najahi-Missaoui W, Arnold RD, Cummings BS. Safe Nanoparticles: Are We There Yet? Int J Mol Sci 2021; 22:385.

267 Patnaik S, Gorain B, Padhi S et al. Recent update of toxicity aspects of nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021; 161: 100-119.

268 Yong SJ. Biodistribution and Spike Protein Safety of mRNA Vaccines: An Update. Medium July 7, 2021.

269 Yong SJ. mRNA Vaccine and the Brain: A Recap and Update. Medium Oct. 14, 2021.

270 Roltgen K, Nielsen SCA Silva O et al. Immune imprinting, breadth of variant recognition, and germinal center response in human SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Cell Jan. 24, 2022.

271 Blaylock RL. Covid-19 pandemic: What is the truth? Surg Neurol Int 2021; 12: 591.

272 Nebraska Medicine. How long do mRNA and spike proteins last in the body? July 2, 2021.

273 Male V. Menstrual changes after covid-19 vaccination. BMJ 2021; 374.

274 Reuters. EU investigates reports of menstrual disorders after mRNA COVID shots. Feb. 11, 2022.

275   Lee WS, Wheatley AK et al. Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies. Nature Microbiology 2020; 5: 1185-1191.

276 Xu L, Ma Z, Li Y et al. Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development. Adv Immunology 2021; 151: 99-133.

277 Fadul N. Do the COVID-19 vaccines cause vaccine enhanced disease? Nebraska Medicine July 2, 2021.

278 CDC. Contraindications and Precautions: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (What Healthcare Professionals Need to Know). Feb. 7, 2022.

279 Fox M, Levenson E, Holcombe M. CDC says it’s OK to get a COVID-19 vaccine alongside other vaccines. CNN May 13, 2021.

280 CDC. Coadministration of COVID-19 Vaccines with Other Vaccines. COVID-19 Vaccines Interim Clinical Considerations. Mar. 2, 2022.

281 Lenzer J, Brownlee S. The COVID Science Wars: Shutting Down Scientific Debate is Hurting the Public Health. Scientific American Nov. 30, 2020.

282 Bellow H. Those who penned Great Barrington Declaration a year after it sparked worldwide firestorm: “This is our crucible.” Berkshire Eagle Oct. 6, 2021.

283 Rumble. Sen. Ron Johnson Panel Discussion “COVID-19: A Second Opinion. Capitol Hill Jan. 24, 2022.

284 Fisher BL. Vaccination and Censorship: The Truth Will Set Us Free. NVIC Newsletter Jan. 26, 2021.

285 National Vaccine Information Center. Pay Pal Stops Processing NVIC Donations. Dec. 24, 2021.

286 CDC. Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule: Recommendations for Ages 18 Years or Younger, United States, 2022. Feb. 17, 2022.

287 CDC. Healthy SchoolsNational Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Nov. 29, 2021.

288 CDC. Developmental Disabilities. Sept. 13, 2021.

289 Silberner J. DPT Vaccine: Weighing the Risks Washington Post Mar. 27, 1985.

290 Institute of Medicine Committee to Review the Adverse Consequences of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. Pertussis & Rubella Vaccines: A Brief Chronology (1982-1985). Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. Washington, DC: National Academies Press 1991.

291 Green M. Feverish Roots of Today’s Anti-Vaccine Movement, KQED May 14, 2015.

292 Weber TP. Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England. Emerg Infect Dis 2010; 16(4): 664-668.

293 National Vaccine Information Center. Hepatitis B Vaccine Reaction Reports Outnumber Reported Disease Cases in Children According to Vaccine Safety Group. NVIC Press Release Jan. 27, 1999.

294 Fisher BL. Congressional Testimony on Hepatitis B Vaccine. Public Hearing in Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources, House Government Reform Committee. May 18, 1999.

295 Kaplan S. Critics Question Safety of Hepatitis B Vaccine. Pew Charitable Trust June 1, 1999.

296 National Vaccine Information Center. Advocacy Groups Call for Research to Investigate Lin Between Autism Increase and Vaccination. NVIC Press Release April 16, 1999.

297 National Vaccine Information Center. Merck’s Gardasil Vaccine Not Proven Safe for Little Girls. NVIC Press Release June 27, 2006.

298 Fisher BL. Preventing Gardasil Vaccine Injuries and Deaths. NVIC Newsletter July 14, 2009.

299 Fisher BL. The Moral Right to Conscientious, Philosophical and Personal Belief Exemption to Vaccination. Presentation to the National Vaccine Advisory Committee May 2, 1997.

300 National Vaccine Information Center. NVIC’s 2021 Annual Report on State Vaccine Legislation. Sept. 20, 2021.

301 National Vaccine Information Center. The Vaccine Reaction.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked with an *

*
Name is a required field
*
Please enter a valid email address
*
Please enter a comment.
11 Responses to "What Mothers Should Know About COVID and COVID-19 Vaccine for Children"
Commenter Name
Fowello the $
Posted: 7/15/2022 6:23:30 PM
It took FDA 2 days to approve COVID vaccine for children 6 months to 5 years. Did they even read the hundreds of pages of test data?
Commenter Name
Laura Briese
Posted: 7/23/2022 3:05:00 PM
Thank you I am very afraid for my 8 month old Grand Son who my daughter gave him all his vaccines including COVID at age 6 months.
Commenter Name
Rebel
Posted: 7/26/2022 12:32:50 PM
Per CDC website children are near zero risk of infection or death from covid. Simply put. Please don't poison your child with this farce.
Commenter Name
Douglass Hetherly
Posted: 3/11/2022 3:11:39 PM
It is now time to take these evil beings to court. find them guilty and execute them for MURDER. Our Children are our future and these demons are wanting to destroy our future
Commenter Name
Donna R
Posted: 3/11/2022 3:26:50 PM
Just don't do it! It's a big red flag when a government is pushing this on everyone and threatening us unless we do it. Wake up people!
Commenter Name
Jean Johnson
Posted: 3/11/2022 3:35:29 PM
The best and most complete article written by a non-medical person that I have read. and it comes from your heart. Thank you Barbara.
Commenter Name
Terry S
Posted: 3/11/2022 6:56:28 PM
Wow, a tour-de-force article filled with factual information that thoroughly exposes these extremely dangerous mRNA injections!
Commenter Name
rebekah paparella
Posted: 3/12/2022 9:17:03 AM
I am immensely grateful for the work put into this in-depth article. There is a huge comfort in at least knowing we have you in an army of truth-tellers; that we are not alone is, in itself, healing to the heart.
Commenter Name
Amy
Posted: 3/12/2022 8:47:27 PM
Thank you Barbra!! You are a true angel sent from above. You are my hero and I appreciate your dedication to the health and freedom of our children. God bless you and your family.
Commenter Name
Toni Krehel
Posted: 3/13/2022 9:09:48 AM
Thank you for this in-depth and well referenced article ... and for ALL of NVIC's amazing work. SO grateful!!
Commenter Name
Victoria
Posted: 3/25/2022 8:16:34 AM
Thank you for this article. This is the most in depth article I've seen on this topic and with references for everything. Thank you for your work on this, you will be helping a lot of parents make the right decision for their child.
Make A Difference

NVIC is 100% funded by donations.
 

Connect with Us!

Ask 8 Information Kiosk

Explore FREE downloadable educational materials


NVIC Websites:
Opens in new tab, window
Opens an external site
Opens an external site in new tab, window