Disease & Vaccine Information

Mumps & Mumps Vaccine Quick Facts

Updated January 22, 2023


Mumps

mumps disease
 
Image source: CDC PHIL

 

  • Mumps is a contagious viral infection. Symptoms begin with a headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite.1 A stiff is a sign that aseptic meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain) may have developed, which is a rare complication of mumps2;
  • Mumps virus can be found in the saliva, throat and urine of an infected person. The virus is usually spread through the air by respiratory droplets or by contact with the saliva of an infected person3;
  • The time between when a person comes into contact with a person infected with mumps and first begins to experience symptoms of mumps (incubation period) ranges from 12 to 25 days4. The illness lasts for an average 7-10 days, but may last longer before symptoms completely disappear5;
  • The typical “signature” physical sign of mumps is visible swelling of one or both sides of the face under the ears and chin.6 Males, who are past puberty, can experience pain and extreme swelling of the testes and rarely, become sterile.7 Mumps is very rarely fatal;8
  • There is no specific treatment for mumps except alleviation of symptoms with rest, pain relievers and cool compresses.9 
Mumps Vaccine
  • Three mumps containing vaccines are available in the U.S. Two vaccines, MMRII10 and PRIORIX,11 contain live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella virus. The third, ProQuad (MMR-V),12 contains live attenuated measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella virus. PRIORIX, ProQuad, and MMRII were developed using aborted fetal cell lines.13 14 15 The CDC recommends that children get two doses of a Mumps containing vaccine with the first dose given between ages 12-15 months, and the second dose given between ages 4-6 years.16 All mumps vaccines are contraindicated during pregnancy.17 18 19
  • Common side effects from the MMR or MMR-V vaccine include low-grade fever, skin rash, itching, hives, swelling, reddening of skin, and weakness. Reported serious adverse reactions following MMR and MMR-V vaccination include seizures, brain inflammation and encephalopathy; thrombocytopenia; joint, muscle and nerve pain; gastrointestinal disorders; measles like rash; conjunctivitis and other serious health problems.20 21 A vaccine strain infection following vaccination may be the cause of the full body rash.22 23 24 25
  • Since 2006, multiple outbreaks of mumps have occurred in the U.S. and abroad in vaccinated children and young adults, occurring often on college campuses.26 In 2017, the CDC recommended a third dose of a mumps containing vaccine to be administered in the event of an outbreak.27 Numerous studies examining mumps outbreaks that have occurred in highly vaccinated populations have experts suggesting that both the waning of vaccine induced immunity and an ineffective mumps vaccine may be to blame.28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
  • In 2010, new information questioning the efficacy of the mumps portion of MMR vaccine emerged when two former Merck employees filed a lawsuit alleging the company altered testing results and studies to make the mumps vaccine in MMR appear to be more effective than it really is in preventing mumps infection. Court proceedings on the case are still pending.36
  • As of January 1, 2023, there had been 1,180 claims filed in the federal Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) for injuries and deaths following mumps-containing vaccination, including 64 deaths and 1,116 serious injuries.
  • Using the MedAlerts search engine, as of December 31, 2022, there have been more than 107,063 reports of mumps vaccine reactions, hospitalizations, injuries and deaths following mumps vaccination made to the federal Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), including 501 related deaths, 8,014 hospitalizations, and 2,097 related disabilities.
Food & Drug Administration (FDA)  Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

IMPORTANT NOTE: NVIC encourages you to become fully informed about Mumps and the Mumps vaccine by reading all sections in the Table of Contents, which contain many links and resources such as the manufacturer product information inserts, and to speak with one or more trusted health care professionals before making a vaccination decision for yourself or your child. This information is for educational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice.

 

 


References:

[1] U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Signs & Symptoms of Mumps. In: Mumps. Mar. 8, 2021.

[2] U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Complications of Mumps. In: Mumps. Mar. 8, 2021.

[3] Communication and Education Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Mumps. In: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 13th ed. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2015; p. 225. Aug. 18. 2021.

[4] U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Signs & Symptoms of Mumps. In: Mumps. Mar. 8, 2021.

[5] National Institute of Health (NIH). Mumps Summary. MedlinePlus Sept. 23, 2016.

[6] U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Signs & Symptoms of Mumps. In: Mumps. Mar. 8, 2021.

[7] Communication and Education Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Mumps. In: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 13th ed. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2015; p. 226-227. Aug. 18, 2021.

[8] Communication and Education Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Mumps. In: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 13th ed. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2015; p. 226-227. Aug. 18, 2021.

[9] Mayo Clinic. Mumps treatment. In: Diagnosis and Treatment. Nov. 23, 2022.

[10] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Dec. 14, 2020.

[11] GlaxoSmithKline. Package Insert – PRIORIX. U.S. Food and Drug Administration July 1, 2022.

[12] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. PROQUAD. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Apr. 16, 2021.

[13] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Dec. 14, 2020.

[14] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Dec. 14, 2020.

[15] GlaxoSmithKline. Package Insert – PRIORIX. U.S. Food and Drug Administration July 1, 2022.

[16] McLean HQ, Fiebelkorn AP, Temte JL. et al. Prevention of Measles, Rubella, Congenital Rubella Syndrome, and Mumps, 2013: Summary Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR June 14, 2013; 62(RR04):1-34

[17] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Dec. 14, 2020.

[18] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Dec. 14, 2020.

[19] GlaxoSmithKline. Package Insert – PRIORIX. U.S. Food and Drug Administration July 1, 2022.

[20] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Dec. 14, 2020.

[21] Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp. PROQUAD. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Apr. 16, 2021.

[22] Ong SWX, Vasoo S, Sadarangani SP. et al. Vaccine-associated Rubella - a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Hum Vaccin Immunother. Jan 2, 2021;17(1):224-227.

[23] Nestibo L, Lee BE, Fonseca K. et al. Differentiating the wild from the attenuated during a measles outbreak. Paediatr Child Health. Apr. 2012;17(4):e32-3.

[24] Jenkins GA, Chibo D, Kelly HA. et al. What is the cause of a rash after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination? Med J Aust Aug. 16. 1999; 171(4): 194-195.

[25] Berggren KL, Tharp M, Boyer KM. Vaccine-associated “wild-type” measles. Pediatr Dermatol Mar-Apr. 2005; 22(2): 130-132.

[26] U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mumps Cases and Outbreaks. In: Mumps. Oct. 31, 2022.

[27] Marin M, Marlow M, Moore KL. et al. Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Third Dose of Mumps Virus–Containing Vaccine in Persons at Increased Risk for Mumps During an Outbreak. MMWR Jan. 12, 2018; 67(1): 33–38.

[28] Principi N, Esposito S. Mumps outbreaks: A problem in need of solutions. J Infect June 2018;76(6):503-506.

[29] Fields VS, Safi H, Waters C et al. Mumps in a highly vaccinated Marshallese community in Arkansas, USA: an outbreak report. Lancet Infect Dis. February 2019;19(2):185-192.

[30] L’Huillier AG, Eshaghi A, Racey CS et al. Laboratory testing and phylogenetic analysis during a mumps outbreak in Ontario, Canada. Virol J. June 2018; 15: 98.

[31] Lewnard JA, Grad, YH Vaccine waning and mumps re-emergence in the United States. Sci Transl Med March 2018; 10(433): eaao5945.

[32] Dayan GH, Quinlisk MP, Parker AA et al. Recent resurgence of mumps in the United States. N Engl J Med. April 2008;358(15):1580-9.

[33] Dayan GH, Rubin S. Mumps outbreaks in vaccinated populations: are available mumps vaccines effective enough to prevent outbreaks? Clin. Infect. Dis. December 2008; 47: 1458–1467.

[34] Peltola H, Kulkarni PS, Kapre SV et al. Mumps outbreaks in Canada and the United States: time for new thinking on mumps vaccines. Clin Infect Dis. August 2007; 45(4):459-66.

[35] Choi KM. Reemergence of mumps. Korean J Pediatr. May 2010; 53(5): 623–628.

[36] Solomon L. Merck Has Some Explaining To Do Over Its MMR Vaccine Claims Huffington Post Nov. 27, 2014.

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