Fear is a primal biological response to a perceived threat to our survival. Fear triggers momentary paralysis and then a fight or flight reaction before the brain can rationally analyze and calibrate our response to a perceived threat. 1
Right now, people around the world are living in fear of being infected or infecting someone else with a new coronavirus that can kill those most vulnerable without warning. Along with confusion and uncertainty, which prolongs fear, many of us are traumatized by the authoritarian measures governments have taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that began in China in late 2019.
The “new normal” is disorienting, like we have taken a hit to the gut and then to the head that we didn’t see coming. Maybe that is why so many Americans, who value freedom of speech, religion, assembly, privacy and the right to work, have given those constitutional rights up, without stopping to think through the ramifications of the larger precedent being set.
We are slowly coming out of shock five months after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control declared a public health emergency on January 31, 2 which escalated six weeks later into a social distancing lockdown when the World Health Organization declared a COVID-19 pandemic on March 11. 3
Questions About the Lockdown Response to COVID-19 Pandemic
There are lots of questions being asked now about whether the lockdown response to the new coronavirus has matched the threat, questions like:
- Why did the U.S. fail to immediately screen people at sea ports and airports for illness as soon as the outbreak was identified in China and got worse in February so they could be quarantined and tested? 4 5 6 7 8
- At the beginning of the pandemic, why were Americans told masks were useless and to stop buying and wearing them, when now we are told we must wear masks? 9 10 11 12
- Why were U.S. emergency supply warehouses, which were supposed to be stocked with pandemic preparedness equipment for health care workers, completely empty? 13
- Why were residents of nursing homes and other crowded medical facilities not effectively screened and tested to make sure the sick were not being housed with the healthy? 14 15 16 17
- Why did U.S. public health officials persuade lawmakers to almost immediately lockdown and home quarantine most of our population,18 instead of using traditional disease control measures that identify, quarantine and treat the sick? 19 20 21 22
Opening Up Conversation About Science, Health and Liberty in the U.S.
As we let go of fear and return to rational thinking, it is opening up a public conversation about science, health and liberty that is going viral, despite attempts by Big Pharma and Big Tech working with governments and mainstream media to censor it. 23 24 25 26 27
In the United States of America, we live in a constitutional republic where democratically elected representatives make laws, and state governments are a check and balance on the authority of the federal government. 28
American values and beliefs, which have influenced the adoption of human rights in international law, 29 30 31 32 are embedded in the 1776 Declaration of Independence 33 and codified in the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution. 34
Americans value autonomy and individuality. We believe each person is a unique and independent individual with an inalienable right to life and liberty. 35
We value the human right to freedom of thought, expression and belief; freedom of conscience and association; and respect for privacy - all civil liberties that limit the power of government. 36
We value equal opportunity for all and mobility within society based on individual initiative and hard work, not on hierarchy, inherited privilege or government permission. 37
We are a pragmatic and adaptable people who value the use of common sense and practical solutions to problem solve, achieve and succeed. 38
We are a generous people and believe that voluntarily helping others by donating our money and time is a personal choice motivated by charity, not by communal expectation or a legal requirement. 39
Above all, we are a self-reliant, optimistic people with an indomitable spirit and faith in our ability to overcome adversity individually and as a nation. 40 41 42
Some of the core values, which have shaped our history and defined who we are as a nation, have been put on trial in 2020 because we are paralyzed by fear of a virus that doctors say could be hiding in the breath of every person who comes near us and contaminate everything we touch. 43 44 Often described in military and apocalyptic terms as a war for human survival against an “invisible enemy,” 45 46 47 48 the authoritarian lockdown approach by governments to the coronavirus pandemic has been framed as a choice between safety and liberty.
In horror, we watched the coronavirus pandemic unfold in February 2020 with Chinese officials either chasing citizens suspected of being infected with the virus into the streets and dragging them away to quarantine camps, or using hammers, nails and blocks of wood to barricade families into their apartments. 49 50 51 52 Then, after scientists and U.S. public health officials used mathematical models to warn lawmakers to lock down the U.S. or prepare for between 1.7 and 2.2 million Americans to die of COVID-19, 53 54 55 we were filled with an uncommon fear and uncertainty that continues to haunt our lives.
The Fear of Entering Public Spaces and Getting Too Close to Each Other
As most states emerge from months of quarantining people in their homes and shuttering businesses,56 many Americans are still afraid to enter a public space because we are warned over and over again that the invisible enemy will kill us if we don’t stay six feet away from each other at all times, even outdoors. 57 Parents have been urged not to hug their children if a member in their family has been exposed to the virus. 58 In one city, government officials told residents to take photos and report fellow citizens who violate social distancing rules by getting too close to each other outside. 59
We see fellow Americans be arrested for not wearing masks, 60 61 or walking on deserted beaches, 62 63 or for taking their children to empty playgrounds. 64 65 Small business owners, who are struggling to feed their families, are being sent to jail for re-opening without government permission. 66 Food banks are running out of food because families, who have never stood in a food bank line in their lives, have no other choice. 67
It doesn’t feel right, but most of us comply with the new rules, afraid to be the one who gets a dirty look or is yelled at or arrested - or worse – if we don’t comply.
COVID-19 Mortality Estimates Far Exceed Reality
Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a coronavirus pandemic in March 2020 and CDC officials predicted it could kill 1.7 million Americans, by May 22, there had been 335,000 COVID-19 reported deaths among the world’s seven billion people with about 96,000 of those deaths reported in the U.S.  How the death toll would have been affected if global lockdowns had not taken place to try to slow the infection rate and delay population based herd immunity will be debated for years to come. 
Although the vast majority of COVID-19 infections are thought to be asymptomatic, data shows the estimated symptomatic infection-mortality rate in America is currently at most 1.3 percent. 70 71 72 73 About 90 percent of people who die are over 65 years old, with the majority of those people suffering with one or more chronic poor health conditions like heart or lung disease, obesity, diabetes and hypertension. 74 More than 80 percent of children who die from COVID-19 also suffer with chronic illness and disabilities like immune suppression, obesity, diabetes, seizures, developmental delays and genetic disorders. 75 76
We all hope to live long and productive lives but nobody escapes death and, for some, it comes sooner than expected. The sudden unexpected death of a person for any reason is a tragedy, especially for that person’s family and friends. The deaths of tens of thousands during this pandemic or any pandemic is a tragedy. The feelings of loss and helplessness are magnified when individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 die alone, separated from their families, denied the comfort of taking their last breath in the company of people they love and who love them. 77
Are We Really All in This Together?
Whether the new coronavirus jumped out of an animal in a Chinese live food market 78 or escaped from a biohazard lab, 79 80 whether the virus kills an estimated one to two percent of those symptomatically infected or far less, 81 this year billions of people around the world have followed the advice of the World Health Organization, government health agencies and doctors, who tell us that this “invisible common enemy” must be vanquished using any means possible because, collectively, “we are all in this together.” 82
Public health officials have persuaded lawmakers to divide the American people into two classes: those who are considered “essential” and allowed to continue working and those who are considered “non-essential” and barred from earning a living. 83 84 85 86 Small businesses and services judged to be “non-essential” have been forced to close their doors, including daycares, schools, churches, restaurants, theaters, barber shops and salons, gyms, parks and beaches while, paradoxically, everyone is free to roam through grocery stores, drug stores and big box stores like Walmart, Target and Home Depot owned by big corporations.
The Mass Suffering Generated by Widespread “Sheltering in Place”
Tens of millions of healthy Americans have obeyed orders to “shelter in place” and self-quarantine at home for months, sacrificing their jobs and losing their savings, 87 88 89 destroying one third of the small businesses middle class citizens have worked a lifetime to build, 90 91 while parts of the travel, 92 93 94 95 96 restaurant, 97 retail 98 99 and personal care industries 100 go bankrupt. By the end of May, there were more than 38 million Americans unemployed, representing almost 24 percent of the labor force, and most of them are low hourly wage earners who don’t have savings to pay the rent or buy food while they are out of work. 101 102 103
So the homeless rate in the U.S. is projected to increase by 45 percent this year, with almost one million people homeless by the summer. 104 At the same time, Congress is driving up the national debt in an attempt to delay the complete collapse of our economy by using taxpayer money to pay people to stay away from each other. 105
Fear of a virus has prevented people sick with heart disease, cancer and other health problems from being treated in hospitals that have been told to only treat patients infected with COVID-19. 106 107 Neglected children and battered women have been trapped for months in homes with their abusers, while calls to mental health hotlines from depressed, anxiety-ridden and suicidal children and adults have increased by nearly 900 percent 108 109 110 111 and, in some cities, prison inmates – even those charged with violent crimes – are being released from jail with the justification they should not be exposed to COVID-19. 112 113
With our children locked out of classrooms and the faithful blocked from worshipping in churches, synagogues and mosques, fear has stopped most of us from publicly questioning the premise that the price of safety is liberty. 114 115 116 117 118 119
Few have challenged the mantra repeated over and over again by doctors and politicians in positions of power that this dystopian reality we are now living in will be the “new normal” 120 until we are all tested and everyone is vaccinated when a COVID-19 vaccine is available because then, and only then, will it be “safe” for government to give back at least some of the liberty that has been taken from us. 121 122 123 124 125
What we have allowed to be done in the name of public health has no parallel in American history or human history.
No Lockdowns for Past Epidemics and Pandemics
The world did not lock down during centuries of epidemics of smallpox, which was a highly contagious virus and had a case fatality rate of 30 percent. 126 Americans did not stop working to prevent epidemics of diphtheria when that contagious disease swept through communities in the 19th and early 20th centuries, with a mortality rate of between 5 and 10 percent that was even higher for children. 127 Societies have not closed businesses and schools to prevent tuberculosis, a contagious disease that spreads the same way as coronavirus and has a case fatality rate still between 20 and 70 percent. 128 129
In 1918, state Governors did not order healthy people to shelter in place and put tens of millions of Americans out of work during the Spanish Flu Pandemic, when that highly contagious H1N1 influenza virus had a case fatality rate of more than 2.5 percent. 130
So why are the majority of people in educated societies like the U.S. cowering in fear before a virus that does not cause any symptoms or complications in the majority of children and adults under the age of 65, and has a mortality rate of about one percent, which is even lower if all the asymptomatic infections are counted? 131
In America, why are we allowing fear to erode cultural values and beliefs that have sustained and defined who we are as a nation for 245 years?
1982: The Challenge to Vaccine Science, Policy, Law and Ethics
The profound ramifications of what is happening this year in the name of public health and the slippery slope that has been created is expanding the conversation about science, health and liberty that has been going on for several centuries in academic, philosophical and political circles, 132 133 134 135 136 137 but didn’t go public in post-World War II America until 1982, when parents of vaccine injured children challenged the science, policy, law and ethics of mandatory vaccination, the most revered of all medical interventions in the history of public health programs. 138
Mothers and fathers, whose children died or were brain injured in the 1970s and 80s by the crude whole cell pertussis vaccine in DPT, had simple goals: we wanted safer vaccines, more and better quality scientific research to identify those children at high risk for being harmed by vaccination, and the inclusion of informed consent protections in public health policies and laws. 139 140 141 142 At first, defensive vaccine manufacturers, public health officials and pediatricians met our request for safer vaccines and better science with anger and dismissal. 143 Before Congress passed the 1986 National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act giving vaccine makers a partial liability shield but also acknowledging that vaccine safety should be a national priority, 144 145 we were patronized. Then, when we refused to go away, we were demonized. 146 147 148 149 150
Today, any person who talks about their or their child’s vaccine reaction or criticizes one-size-fits-all vaccine policies is called ignorant. 151 152 Any person who points out how low vaccine licensing standards are or how big the long standing gaps in vaccine safety research are, is accused of being a science denier and slapped with the “anti-vaxxer” label.153 154
If you question the orders of doctors, who believe it is moral to enforce “no exceptions” vaccine laws that sacrifice vaccine vulnerable children in the name of the greater good, you are called “selfish” for defending the ethical principle of informed consent and refusing to offer up your child’s health for herd immunity. 155 If you protest against vaccine policies that deny people an education, medical care and employment based on their vaccination status, you are called a danger to society. 156 If you criticize information disseminated by the CDC and World Health Organization, you are branded a threat to global health and can be censored on the Internet or far worse. 157 158 159 160 161
Strategies Creating a “New Normal” During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Does this sound familiar? It should, because it is the same rhetoric and political tactics being used during this COVID-19 pandemic to keep the people fearful and compliant.
It is the same strategy that will be used to label you a selfish threat to the public health if you don’t agree to be electronically tagged, tested and tracked by health officials when thousands of COVID-19 “contact tracers” fan out across America to test for COVID-19 infections. 162 163 164 It is the same strategy that will be used when you are told you must get an antibody test and obtain an “immunity passport” 165 before you are given back your freedom to participate in society - that is until a fast tracked coronavirus vaccine is licensed and your passport to life and liberty becomes proof you have received a COVID-19 vaccine – perhaps simultaneously delivered and tracked via a microneedle quantum dot tattoo on your skin. 166
Will a positive antibody test be accurate 167 or does it even matter? Every day, we hear scientists and public health officials arguing about whether or not naturally acquired coronavirus immunity means anything at all, 168 169 170 171 while promoting the idea that a COVID-19 vaccine is the only thing that will give us immunity and save us all. 172 173
Tomorrow, the “new normal” in America may well include the order to “Show me your vaccine papers”   before you can enter a store or restaurant, go to school, attend a football game, get on a plane, train or subway, obtain a driver’s license, be admitted to a hospital or nursing home, get a room at a hotel or walk on a public beach, if health policy and lawmakers do not use common sense to adopt a more balanced approach to dealing with a virus that, so far, has changed everything.    
There is no oversight  on the decisions we allow scientists and doctors with big titles and even bigger salaries to make for us,    decisions that can affect the biological integrity of each one of us and profoundly impact the way we live our lives.
Yet, science is not perfect, doctors are not infallible, and the risks of having a complication to an infectious disease or a vaccine can be higher or lower depending upon the genes and epigenetic history we inherit, the environments we live in, and the life choices we make.    
Health of a Society Defined by Absence of Chronic Disease and Disability
The health of a society is not solely measured by the absence of infectious disease but, more importantly, by the absence of chronic disease that destroys quality of life and lowers a nation’s life expectancy because it often leads to premature death.
In America every year, heart disease kills 647,000 people; lung disease kills 160,000; uncontrolled hypertension and stroke kills 146,000, and diabetes kills 83,000 people,  while millions more suffer cancer  and other types of immune and brain disorders.  America has the worst life expectancy,  the worst infant mortality  and maternal mortality  rates and the highest prevalence of chronic illness and disability  of all developed nations in the world, even though we have one of the most highly vaccinated populations in the world,  with over 94 percent of school children having received dozens of doses of vaccines for the past three decades.  
Today, only four adults in 10 are considered healthy, while over 50 percent have one chronic disease and 30 percent suffer with two or more.  An astonishing 25 percent of all children have a chronic poor health condition  like asthma, epilepsy, food allergies, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and other autoimmune disorders, developmental delays, autism, anxiety and depression, and diabetes. 
In fact, chronic disease marked by unresolved inflammation in the body 201 202 is the Number One cause of death and disability in America and is responsible for most of the annual $3.5 trillion dollars spent on health care. 203 It is an epidemic that is crippling and killing far more people than COVID-19 or any other pandemic in our history.
U.S. public health officials have no explanation for why the majority of Americans are sick, except to blame the people for making themselves sick by smoking and drinking too much, eating junk food and not getting enough exercise or sleep. 204
COVID-19 Mortality in U.S. Impacted by Multiple Failures
Whether or not you buy that explanation, the fact that over 160 million people in our population are afflicted with chronic poor health may be at least one reason why there have been more COVID-19 related deaths reported in the U.S. than any other country. That, along with the fact that on March 24, the CDC told doctors and coroners to list COVID-19 as the official cause of death for a person, even if that person had one or more chronic health conditions or had never been tested for COVID-19. 205
Mortality from COVID-19 in the U.S. has also been impacted by the systematic neglect of well-funded federal health agencies like the CDC and BARDA. 206 207 The government was caught totally unprepared for an influenza-like pandemic, despite Congress and three Administrations appropriating billions of dollars to federal health agencies since 2006 to prepare for a pandemic just like this one. 208 Instead, warehouses were left empty without emergency supplies of masks, gowns and gloves for health care workers 209 and without diagnostic tests, equipment and therapeutic agents to help patients survive complications associated with an epidemic of a viral respiratory disease like coronavirus. 210
That is because federal health agencies, which have forged public-private business partnerships with the pharmaceutical industry, 211 have given most of the money Congress handed them for pandemic planning to drug companies to build new vaccine manufacturing plants and produce more vaccines for the national stockpile. 212 213 As the World Health Organization, the CDC, businessman Bill Gates and NIH’s Dr. Anthony Fauci keep telling us, using lots of vaccines is the best way to stay healthy and fast tracking a COVID-19 vaccine to market is the only way the world will ever be a safe place to live again 214 215 216
Corporations, Governments Cut Corners in Race to Develop COVID-19 Vaccines
So global pharmaceutical and biotech companies are now developing over 100 experimental COVID-19 vaccines, with a handful leading the race after being given billions of dollars in funding from the U.S. government, the Gates Foundation and other organizations. 217 218 Some of these coronavirus vaccines being created by scientists will use as yet unlicensed DNA, messenger RNA and nanoparticle technology, oil based adjuvants and electricity, to genetically manipulate and hyperstimulate strong inflammatory immune responses in the body. 219 220
Some companies are skipping animal trials, 221 which are an important part of the vaccine licensing process to answer questions about whether COVID-19 vaccines could cause neurological reactions or more severe coronavirus infections in vaccinated animals or fail to work at all. These are only a few of the short and long term problems that could have devastating consequences for humans being vaccinated.
Some companies are cutting corners by conducting Phase 1, 2 and 3 trials simultaneously, but will they investigate whether half of US adults and a quarter of children suffering with chronic illness are at increased risk for adverse responses to the new COVID-19 vaccines before they are licensed and mandated?
Other vaccine manufacturers want the green light to deliberately infect human clinical trial subjects with COVID-19 to see how well an experimental vaccine works. 222 Enthusiastic “bioethicists” are jumping on board to help advance this type of “new normal” in vaccine research, but parents of vaccine injured children are logically asking why it is ethical to intentionally infect humans with a new virus in a clinical trial when for decades public health officials have insisted that it is absolutely unethical to conduct a prospective clinical trial comparing health outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated children to determine whether vaccines are harming far more than “one in a million.” 223 224
So, while we are being ordered to obey new rules that require us to give up our constitutional and human rights, drug companies and government health officials are violating old rules that govern ethics and the scientific method for proving that vaccines are safe and effective. 225
Jacobson v. Massachusetts: A Utilitarian Ruling by SCOTUS with Tragic Consequences
Science is not perfect, doctors are not infallible, and vaccines carry risks that can be greater for some than others, which is why voluntary vaccination should have been unanimously upheld in the 1905 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Jacobson v. Massachusetts. 226 Instead, the majority sitting on that high court more than a century ago viewed the notoriously reactive smallpox vaccine as a sacred cow and medical doctors as infallible so they could affirm the constitutional authority of state legislatures to mandate smallpox vaccinations during outbreaks. The Court said:
“The matured opinions of medical men everywhere, and the experience of mankind, as all must know, negative the suggestion that it is not possible in any case to determine whether vaccination is safe.”
Using bad logic and bad science while leaning heavily on the pseudo-ethic of utilitarianism, state governments were given the green light to legally require vaccination based on a “common belief” that vaccination is safe and effective, rather than proven fact. Piously waving the greater good flag to justify throwing civil liberties out the door, the Court majority ruled that citizens do not have a legal right to be free at all times because there are “manifold restraints to which every person is necessarily subjected for the common good.”
The Court said that state legislatures can exercise police power to restrict or eliminate civil liberties, including freedom of religion, during public health emergencies in order to “secure the general comfort, health and prosperity of the state.”
But the justices also warned that mandatory vaccination laws should not be forced on a person whose physical condition would make vaccination “cruel and inhuman to the last degree.” They said:
“We are not to be understood as holding that the statute was intended to be applied in such a case or, if it was so intended, that the judiciary would not be competent to interfere and protect the health and life of the individual concerned. ‘All laws,’ this Court has said, “should receive a sensible construction.”
One academic activist attorney has said that the 1905 Jacobson ruling “is often regarded as the most important judicial decision in public health.”  That is not an overstatement because, in 1927, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendall Holmes used it to issue a eugenics ruling in Buck v. Bell that affirmed the constitutional authority of Virginia to forcibly sterilize a young woman mistakenly judged by state officials to be mentally retarded.228
Justice Holmes declared, “The principle that sustains compulsory vaccination is broad enough to cover cutting the fallopian tubes,” leading the way for mass sterilization of tens of thousands of Americans that doctors and government officials judged to be genetically defective, or morally unfit or otherwise a threat to the public health during the 1920s and 30s. 
This is the tragic legacy of Jacobson v. Masschusetts, 230 an immoral utilitarian ruling that public health officials cling to in order to justify legally requiring people to use vaccines that carry a risk of injury or death and applying societal punishments for refusing to do it. 231 232
State Legislators Primarily Make Most Public Health Laws
During this time of fear and confusion, the Jacobson ruling also reminds us that it is democratically elected representatives in state legislatures who make public health laws governing people living in different states. That is because what is not defined in the US Constitution as a federal activity is reserved for the states, which is an important check on federal government power. Elected lawmakers in your state can choose to mandate a few or many vaccines with or without exemptions, while the federal government has the authority to mandate vaccinations for people entering the U.S. or crossing state borders. 233
It was this understanding that prompted NVIC in 2010 to launch our free online Advocacy Portal at NVICAdvocacy.org that monitors proposed vaccine-related legislation and helps Americans educate lawmakers so flexible medical, religious and conscience vaccine exemptions can be secured and protected in public health laws. Despite aggressive lobbying efforts by vaccine manufacturers, public health officials and medical trade groups, until 2020, vaccine exemptions and informed consent rights have been successfully defended in multiple states over past decade, even though California, New York and several other states have taken those rights away. 234
Now, it looks like voluntary vaccination will be on the line in every state as the Vaccine Culture War, 235 which is the tip of the spear in a much larger culture war about values and beliefs going on in this and many other countries in the 21st century, is brought home to every person and every community in America.
Contact Your Legislators Now and Vote in November
You have an opportunity, right now, to contact your elected representatives and let them know how you feel about protecting civil liberties and vaccine informed consent rights in your state. Sign up to use NVIC’s Advocacy Portal to defend voluntary vaccine choices.
And when you go to the polls on November 3, 2020, think hard about who you are voting for and why. If you don’t like the response to the COVID-19 pandemic that your Governor or other elected representatives have made, your vote in this and every election beyond this one could affect whether America will continue to value liberty or throw it away.
Because if the state can tag, track down and force individuals to be injected with biologicals of known and unknown toxicity today, then there will be no limit on which individual freedoms the state can take away in the name of the greater good tomorrow.
Be the one who never has to say you did not do today what you could have done to change tomorrow.
It’s your health, your family, your choice, and our mission continues:
No forced vaccination. Not in America.
Note: This commentary provides referenced information and perspective on a topic related to vaccine science, policy, law or ethics being discussed in public forums and by U.S. lawmakers. The websites of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) provide information and perspective of federal agencies responsible for vaccine research, development, regulation and policymaking.
1 Newman T. Dissecting terror: How does fear work? Medical News Today Oct. 31, 2018.
2 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Secretary Azar Declares Public Health Emergency for United States for 2019 Novel Coronavirus. CDC Jan. 31, 2020.
3 World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s Remarks at Media Briefing on COVID-19. Mar. 11, 2020.
4 Yasharoff H, Deerwester J, Oliver D. What we know about Diamond Princess cruise passengers with coronavirus flown back to US. USA Today Feb. 18, 2020.
5 Riotta C. Coronavirus: US officials release thousands from cruise ship without screening after passenger tests positive. The Independent Mar. 16, 2020.
6 Jeffries G. Celebrity Eclipse Cruise Ship COVID-19 Cases Spread Globally. KUSI Apr. 3, 2020.
7 Smith J. Why is customs STILL NOT screening passengers from coronavirus hot-spots Italy, Iran and South Korea who arrive at major airports, including JFK, LAX, Atlanta and Chicago's O'Hare? Daily Mail Mar. 6, 2020.
8 Southern California Public Radio. Should We Be Worried That All Returning LAX Passengers Aren't Getting COVID-19 Screening? Mar. 15, 2020.
9 Langlois S. Surgeon general wants you to stop buying masks to protect yourself from coronavirus: ‘They are NOT effective.” MarketWatch Mar. 1, 2020.
10 U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community Based Transmission. “CDC recommends wearing cloth face coverings in public settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain (e.g., grocery stores and pharmacies) especially in areas of significant community-based transmission.” CDC Apr. 3, 2020.
11 World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: When and how to use masks. “Currently there is not enough evidence for or against the use of masks (medical or other) for healthy individuals in the wider community. WHO continues to recommend that medical masks be worn by individuals who are sick or those caring for them.” WHO Apr. 6, 2020.
12 Masters K. Yes, disobeying Virginia’s mask order could carry a criminal charge. But Northam appears to be counting on compliance. The Virginia Mercury May 28, 2020.
13 Lovelace B. HHS clarifies US has about 1% of face masks needed for ‘full-blown’ coronavirus pandemic. CNBC Mar. 4, 2020.
14 Mustian J, Peltz J, Condon B. NY’s Cuomo criticized over highest nursing home death toll. ABC May 10, 2020.
15 Martinez M. Sacramento senior facilities prepare COVID-19 Surge Units. KCRA Apr. 21, 2020.
16 Miller JR. Coronavirus deaths at US nursing homes, long-term facilities reach over 10,000. New York Post Apr. 23, 2020.
17 Fulmer T. Nursing homes and COVID-19: The Action and Strategy We Need. Next Avenue Apr. 30, 2020.
18 Rummler O. CNN: Fauci advises all states issue stay-at-home orders. Axios Apr. 3, 2020.
19 Saplakoglu Y. The government has the power to shut down entire cities. But would that stop coronavirus? Live Science Mar. 4, 2020.
20 Yale University. Open letter to Vice President Mike Pence and Other Federal, State and Local Leaders from Public Health and Legal Experts in the United States. March 2020
21 Maxmen A. Scientists exposed to coronavirus wonder: why weren’t we notified? Nature Mar. 20, 2020.
22 Zahn M, Serwer A. Coronavirus response caused a ‘much bigger economic shock’ than necessary: Niall Ferguson. Yahoo Finance May 29, 2020. And Coronavirus response a ‘massive policy screwup’ but not Trump’s fault: Niall Ferguson. Yahoo Finance May 28, 2020.
23 Farr C. Facebook, Amazon, Google and more met with WHO to figure out how to stop coronavirus misinformation. CNBC Feb. 14, 2020
24 International Press Institute. Emergency COVID-19 measures must not be used to roll back media freedom. Mar. 17, 2020.
25 Douek E. COVID-19 and Social Media Content Moderation. Lawfare Institute Mar. 25, 2020.
26 Zappulla A. Media freedom must not fall victim to COVID-19. The Standard May 5, 2020.
27 Lewis P, Conn D. UK scientists condemn ‘Stalinist’ attempt to censor COVID-19 advice. The Guardian May 8, 2020.
28 Reference. Understanding How the U.S. Government is Organized.
29 Bill of Rights Institute. United States: Founding Principle and Virtues.
30 Magnet M. The Vision of the Founding Fathers. National Review July 3, 2015.
31 Andrews University. 10 Core American Values.
32 United Nations General Assembly. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Dec. 10, 1948.
33 U.S National Archives. Declaration of Independence.
34 U.S. National Archives. America’s Founding Documents: U. S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.
35 Scott CE. The Five Conceptions of American Liberty. National Affairs Summer 2014.
36 Independence Hall Association. American Government: Civil Liberties and Civil Rights.
37 Dorn JA. Equality, Justice, and Freedom: A Constitutional Perspective. Cato Journal 2014; 34(3).
38 Philosophy Talk. American Pragmatism. Dec. 3, 2006.
39 Radu S. Measuring the World’s Most Generous Countries. U.S. News & World Reports Dec. 20, 2019.
40 The Lehrman Institute. U.S. Founders’ Optimism.
41 CNN. America the optimistic. CNN Feb. 25, 2020.
42 Izaguirre J. The American dream and literature: how the themes of self-reliance and individualism are relevant in preserving both the aesthetics and the ideals of the American dream. DePaul University College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences Theses and Dissertations 2014.
43 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). How 2019-nCoV Spreads. Jan. 31, 2020.
44 Fisher BL. Unprecedented Response to COVID-19 by Governments Prohibits Physical Contact and Cripples World Economy. National Vaccine Information Center Mar. 29, 2020.
45 Fisher BL. U.S. Marines and Navy Prepare to Execute Pandemic Plan as Questions Resurface about Coronavirus Origin. The Vaccine Reaction Feb. 20, 2020.
46 Guterres A. COVID-19: We will come through this together. WHO Mar. 13, 2020.
47 Mangan D, Higgins N, Feuer W. Coronavirus is “Public Enemy No 1’: WHO chief warns final death toll depends on future actions. CNBC Mar. 25, 2020.
48 Castelluccio J. Army Chief: ‘We Will Defeat This Virus.’ The Salem News Apr. 19, 2020.
49 Jewell B. Eighty-six people die of coronavirus in a DAY in China as Beijing begins mass arrest of sufferers and videos show hazmat suit-clad goons dragging people from their homes as the death toll hits 724. Daily Mail Feb. 8, 2020.
50 Mozur P. China, Desperate to Stop Coronavirus, Turns Neighbor Against Neighbor. New York Times Feb. 4, 2020.
51 Parker E. Videos emerge of Chinese police 'barricading sick residents inside their apartments to starve.' Daily Star Feb. 2, 2020.
52 Brown F. Wuhan woman screams as Chinese authorities barricade her inside own home. Metro Feb. 2, 2020.
53 Fink S. The worst-case estimate for U.S. coronavirus deaths. The New York Times Mar. 13, 2020.
54 Davis W. Neil Ferguson, Doctor Behind Coronavirus Imperial College Study, Revised Predictions. Daily Caller Mar. 26, 2020.
55 Bernstein D. 2.2 Million American Deaths from Covid-19? Reason Magazine Mar. 31, 2020.
56 Burns D, Rough J. List of Coronavirus-Related Restrictions in Every State. AAP May 29, 2020.
57 Italiano L, Narizhnaya K et al. ‘Orwellian’ NYPD swarms parks to enforce social distancing. New York Post May 2, 2020.
58 Fox EG. Parents quarantined for coronavirus exposure can’t hug or kiss their children to comfort them. Business Insider May 12, 2020.
59 CBS. Coronavirus Crackdown: New Yorkers Asked to Report Social Distancing Violations. Apr. 18, 2020.
60 Verde B. Cops Aggressively Arrest Mom Who Improperly Wore Fast Mask in Brooklyn Subway Station. Brooklyn Paper May 14, 2020.
61 Hutchinson B. ‘Incomprehensible’: Confrontations over masks erupt amid COVID-19 crisis. ABC May 7, 2020.
62 Connelly L. Malibu surfer in handcuffs after enjoying empty, epic waves. Daily Breeze Apr. 3. 2020.
63 McNamara A. New York City man arrested in Hawaii after posting beach photos on Instagram. CBS May 16, 2020.
64 Cook J, Sandell C, Leong J. Former police officer arrested in park for throwing ball with daughter due to coronavirus social distancing. ABC Apr. 8, 2020.
65 CBS. Protest starts after Idaho woman arrested at playground closed due to coronavirus. Apr. 22, 2020.
66 Flores J. Dallas salon owner who reopened in defiance of Texas’ coronavirus restrictions sentenced to 7 days in jail. USA Today May 5, 2020.
67 Conlin M, Baertlein L, Walljasper C. US food banks run short on staples as hunger soars. Reuters Apr. 24, 2020.
68 Worldometer. COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Accessed May 22, 2020.
69 Hansen M. A return to normalcy – not social distancing – may be key to overcoming COVID-19. Deseret News May 2, 2020.
70 Day M. Covid-19: four fifths of cases are asymptomatic, China figures indicate. BMJ Apr. 2, 2020; 369.
71 Newman t. Covid-19: What MNT’s experts want you to know now. Medical News Today May 5, 2020.
72 Basu A. Estimating The Infection Fatality Rate Among Symptomatic COVID-19 Cases In The United States. Health Affairs May 7, 2020.
73 Shabad A. CDC estimates COVID 19 mortality rate is 0.4%, significantly lower than previously reported. WCNC May 28, 2020.
74 Garg S. et al. Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2020; 69(15): 458-464.
75 Shekerdemian L, Mahmood NR et al. Characteristics and Outcomes of Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Admitted to US and Canadian Pediatric Intensive Care Units. JAMA May 11, 2020.
76 Rutgers University. Children face risk for severe complications and death from COVID-19. Medical Xpress May 11, 2020.
77 Burke D. Coronavirus preys on what terrifies us: dying alone. CNN Mar. 29, 2020.
78 Woodward A. Experts think that Wuhan coronavirus jumped from bats to snakes to people. Bats have been the source of at least 4 pandemics. Business Insider Jan. 28, 2020.
79 Rogin R. State Department cables warned of safety issues at Wuhan lab studying bat coronaviruses. Washington Post Apr. 14, 2020.
80 Guterl F. Dr. Fauci Backed Controversial Wuhan Lab with U.S. Dollars for Risky Coronavirus Research. Newsweek Apr. 28, 2020.
81 NPR. Antibody Tests Point to Lower Death Rate for the Coronavirus Than First Thought. May 28, 2020.
82 Guterrez A. We are all in this together: UNSG delivers policy brief on COVID-19 and human rights. United Nations Apr. 23, 2020.
83 U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Advisory Memorandum Identification of Essential Critical Infrastructure Workers During COVID-19 Response. Mar. 19, 2020 (Revised May 26, 2020).
84 Snider M. What is essential and non-essential during a pandemic? USA Today Mar. 21, 2020.
85 Hutzler A. What Is Essential Business? A State-by-State Roundup of What Stays Open. Newsweek Apr. 1, 2020.
86 Miltimore J. Mike Rowe is Right: There’s “no Such Thing” as a Non-Essential Worker. Foundation for Economic Education May 5, 2020.
87 Norvell K. O’Donnell J. Thousands of US medical workers furloughed, laid off as routine patient visits drop during coronavirus pandemic. USA Today Apr. 2, 2020.
88 Pickert R. America’s Middle Class Gets Hit with Office Jobs Disappearing. Bloomberg Apr. 22, 2020.
89 Gopal P, Gittelsohn J. Home lenders brace for up to 15 million mortgage defaults amid coronavirus crisis. Orange County Register Apr. 2, 2020.
90 Feiner L. Coronavirus devastates small businesses: One third won’t reopen, 55% won’t rehire same workers, Facebook survey finds. CNBC May 18, 2020.
91 Sorace S. Michigan barber ticketed for defying coronavirus lockdown says he’ll work until arrested or ‘Jesus walks in.” Fox May 7, 2020.
92 Oliver D. Half of US hotels could close amid coronavirus crisis, industry exec says. USA Today Mar. 20, 2020.
93 Levine IS. CDC Extends No Sail Order for Cruise Ships. Forbes Apr. 11, 2020.
94 Klebnikov S. Norwegian Cruise Line Stock Plunges 20% After Company Warns of Possible Bankruptcy. Forbes May 5, 2020.
95 Slotnick D. Some of the world’s airlines could go bankrupt because of the COVID-19 crisis, according to an aviation consultancy. See the carriers that have already collapsed because of the pandemic. Business Insider May 12, 2020.
96 Wayland M. Hertz bankruptcy and a distressed rental care market means more pain for US automakers. CNBC May 29, 2020.
97 Bedford C. The Restaurant Industry Is Doing Far Worse Than You Think. The Federalist Apr. 17, 2020.
98 Reed E. Small Businesses Could Vanish During Coronavirus Pandemic. The Street Mar. 26, 2020.
99 Tucker H. Coronavirus Bankruptcy Tracker: These Major Companies Are Failing Amid the Shutdown. Forbes May 3, 2020.
100 Arnold K. Gold’s Gym files for bankruptcy as closures put Dallas-based chain behind on debt payments. Dallas Morning News May 4, 2020.
101 CNN. Another 2.4 million Americans filed for unemployment benefits last week. May 21, 2020.
102 ABC. Illinois hair salons, barber shops look for new ways to service clients during COVID-19 ‘stay at home’ order. Mar. 26, 2020.
103 Pulkkinen L. The COVID-19 Crisis Exposes America’s Economic Divide. US News & World Report Apr. 16, 2020
104 Oreskes B. US homelessness could increase 45 percent because of coronavirus unemployment, study says. Los Angeles Times May 15, 2020.
105 McBride J, Chatzky A, Siripurapu A. The National Debt Dilemma. Council on Foreign Relations Apr. 30, 2020.
106 Seminara D. Rigid Lockdowns Imperil Public Health. I’m in a Position to Know. Real Clear Politics Apr. 30, 2020.
107 Washington Post. US hospitals considering blanket ‘do not resuscitate’ orders for Covid-19 patients. The Independent Mar. 26, 2020.
108 Godin M. As cities around the world go on lockdown, victims of domestic violence look for a way out. Time Mar. 18, 2020.
109 Donaghue E. Child abuse fears increase as families isolate during coronavirus pandemic. CBS News Apr. 6, 2020.
110 Sandler R. Domestic Violence Hotline Reports Surge In Coronavirus-Related Calls As Shelter-In-Place Leads to Isolation, Abuse. Forbes Apr. 6, 2020.
111 Jackson A. A crisis mental-health hotline has seen an 891% spike in calls. CNN Apr. 10, 2020.
112New York City Board of Correction. New York City Board Of Correction Calls For City To Begin Releasing People From Jail As Part Of Public Health Response To Covid-19. Press Release Mar. 17, 2020.
113 Carrega C. Victim’s family says they weren’t told of violent offender’s release amid COVID-19. ABC News Apr. 7, 2020.
114 Altavena L, Lundberg M, Murphy J. After coronavirus school closings, will states need to hold kids back, institute summer school? USA Today Mar. 18, 2020.
115 Spriggs V. With schools closed, families need your support. Houston Chronicle Apr. 2, 2020.
116 Dwyer D. The other coronavirus ‘front line:’ at home with special needs children. ABC Apr. 2, 2020.
117 Warren S. NC Churches Rally, Religious Rights Group Launches Lawsuit Against Gov. Cooper’s Lockdown. CBN May 14, 2020.
118 One American News Network. Oakland Church Leaders Form Coalition to Reopen Amid Lockdown. May 17, 2020.
119 NBC. NYPD cracks down on another large Jewish funeral in Brooklyn, stoking tensions. May 1, 2020.
120 Hixon T. Get Ready to Live with COVID-19. Forbes Mar. 12, 2020.
121 Boggs J. Dr. Fauci: Return to normal will be gradual, but life may look different until vaccine is ready. WXYZ Apr. 7, 2020.
122 Hains T. Ezekiel Emanuel: US Must Stay Locked Down for 12-18 Months Until There’s A Vaccine. Real Clear Politics Apr. 7, 2020.
123 Bleau H. Gov. Tom Wolfe: Pennsylvania Cannot Return to Normal Without ‘Foolproof” Vaccine. Breitbart May 21, 2020.
124 Napoliello A, Arco M. Coronavirus vaccine must be widely available before NJ fully reopens to ‘new normal’ Murphy says. NJcom May 19, 2020.
125 CSR Wire. The Road to A Vaccine: What Our “New Normal” Might Look Like Until We Get A Covid-19 Vaccine. Johnson & Johnson May 27, 2020.
126 CDC. Smallpox: Clinical Disease. Dec. 5, 2016.
127 WHO. Diphtheria. Sept. 20, 2018.
128 CDC. How TB Spreads. Mar. 11, 2016.
129 Tiemersma EW, van der Wert MJ et al. Natural History of Tuberculosis: Duration and Fatality of Untreated Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV negative patients: A systematic review. PLoS One 2011; 6(4).
130 Taubenberger JK, Morens DM. 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12(1).
131 Shabad A. CDC estimates COVID 19 mortality rate is 0.4%, significantly lower than previously reported. WCNC May 28, 2020.
132 Sweet N. Jeremy Bentham, English Philosopher (1748-1832). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
133 Fletcher R., Barnes HE. Auguste Comte, French Philosopher (1798-1857). Encyclopedia Brittanica.
134 Mariner WK, Annas GJ, Glantz LH. Jacobson v Massachusetts: It’s Not Your Great Great Grandfather’s Public Health Law. Am J Pub Health 2005; 95(4): 58-590.
135 Bayer R. The continuing tensions between individual rights and public health. Talking Point on health versus civil liberties. EMBO Reports 2007; 8(12): 1099-1103.
136 Coggon J, Miola J. Autonomy, Liberty and Medical Decision-Making. Camb Law J 2011; 79(3): 523-547.
137 Schmaus A. Liberty and the Pursuit of Knowledge: Charles Renouvier’s Political Philosophy of Science. University of Pittsburgh Press 2018.
138 Conis E. Vaccination Resistance in Historical Perspective. Organization of American Historians August 2015.
139 Conis E. Vaccination Resistance in Historical Perspective. Organization of American Historians August 2015.
140 Institute of Medicine. Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines: A Brief Chronology: 1982 & 1985. Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines: A Report of the Committee to Review the Adverse Consequences of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. National Academies Press 1991.
141 Fisher BL. Statement on Vaccine Safety Research Needs – Perspective from Parents. Institute of Medicine Vaccine Safety Forum Apr. 1, 1996.
142 Fisher BL. The Moral Right to Conscientious, Philosophical and Personal Belief Exemption to Vaccination. National Vaccine Advisory Committee May 2, 1997.
143 Hilts D. TV Report on Vaccine Stirs Bitter Controversy. Washington Post Apr. 28, 1982.
144 National Vaccine Information Center. National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986: NVIC Position Statement. May 2018.
145 Holland MS. Liability for Vaccine Injury: The United States, the European Union and the Developing World. Emory Law Journal 2018; 67: 415-462.
146 Fagone J. Will This Doctor Hurt Your Baby? Philadelphia Magazine May 27, 2009.
147 Fisher BL. Amy Wallace and Yellow Journalism. NVIC Newsletter Sept. 9, 2010.
148 Smith TC. Vaccine Rejection and Hesitancy: A Review and Call to Action. Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2017; 4(3).
149 Fisher BL. Baylor’s Doc Hotez Bullies Parents of Vaccine Injured Children. NVIC Newsletter Mar. 10, 2018.
150 Offit P. Facebook, Twitter Are Blocking Dangerous Antivaccine Posts. It’s About Time. Philadelphia Inquirer Mar. 4, 2019.
151 Cohen J. Why fighting anti-vaxxers and climate change doubters often backfires. Science Feb. 13, 2016.
152 Lubrano A. Anti-vaccine parents are often white, college-educated, ‘Whole Foods moms’. The Philadelphia Inquirer Apr. 10, 2019.
153 O’Connor PT, Kellerman S. From ‘anti-vac’ to ‘anti-vaxxer.’ Grammarphobia Dec. 14, 2018.
154 O’Hehir A. Anti-vaxxers are not the enemy: Science, politics and the crisis of authority. Salon Feb. 7. 2015.
155 Siegel E, Berezow A. Opting Out of Vaccines Should Opt You Out of American Society. Scientific American Mar. 21, 2019.
156 Coleman PA. The Anti-Vaxxers Spreading Measles in Portland Should Be Arrested. Yahoo May 22, 2019.
157 Fisher BL. The New Internet Police Protecting You from Freedom of Thought and Speech. NVIC Newsletter Dec. 3, 2018
158 Miles T. Vaccine doubts spread like disease, must be taken offline: vaccine chief. Reuters May 21, 2019.
159 Winkle K. Facebook to remove some posts promoting protests against stay-at-home orders. KXAN Apr. 20, 2020.
160 Goldsmith J, Woods AK. Internet Speech Will Never Go Back to Normal. The Atlantic Apr. 25, 2020
161 Griffith K. Critics blast You Tube for ‘censorship’ for removing video of doctors urging an end to coronavirus shutdowns because they disputed ‘local health authorities.’ Daily Mail Apr. 9, 2020.
162 Orestes M. Hire contact tracers by the thousands: A win-win to fight coronavirus and joblessness at the same time. NY Daily News Apr. 14, 2020.
163 Chumley CK. H.R. 6666 a devil of a COVID-19 government surveillance plot. The Washington Times May 12, 2020.
164 Hohman L. Contact Tracing: Your Governors red or blue are coming after you. May 29, 2020.
165 Allison I. COVID-19 ‘Immunity Passport’ Unites 60 Firms on Self-Sovereign ID Project. Yahoo Apr. 13, 2020.
166 Weintraub K. Invisible Ink Could Reveal Whether Kids Have Been Vaccinated. Scientific American Dec. 18, 2019.
167 Fox M. Antibody tests for COVID-19 wrong up to half the time, CDC says. CNN May 31, 2020.
168 C-Span. Dr. Anthony Fauci on COVID-19 herd immunity. White House Coronavirus Task Force Briefing Apr. 6, 2020.
169 Allison L. Who Is Immune to the Coronavirus? Newsmax Apr. 14, 2020.
170 WHO. ‘Immunity Passports’ in the context of COVID-19. Apr. 24, 2020.
171 Collins F. Study Finds Nearly Everyone Who Recovers From COVID-19 Makes Coronavirus Antibodies. National Institutes of Health May 7, 2020.
172 Meyerowitz-Katz G. Here’s Why Herd Immunity Won’t Save Us From the COVID-19 Pandemic. Science Alert Mar. 30, 2020.
173 Rossetti A, Bedzow I. COVID-19: In the race for a vaccine, biopharmaceutical companies showing moral imperative. USA Today Apr. 14, 2020.
174 TED. Bill Gates on how we must respond to the coronavirus pandemic. You Tube video: 33.46-33.36. Mar. 25, 2020
175 Fisher BL. The National Plan to Vaccinate Every American. NVIC Newsletter Mar. 21, 2020.
176 Tverberg G. It is easy to overdo COVID-19 quarantines. Our Infinite World Mar. 11, 2020.
177 Napolitano AP. Coronavirus fear lets government assault our freedom in violation of Constitution. Fox Mar. 19, 2020.
178 Lapado JA. Coronavirus pandemic: We were caught unprepared. It is too late for shutdowns to save us. USA Today Mar. 24, 2020.
179 Schneeweiss Z, Murtaugh D. This is how deeply the coronavirus changed our behavior. Bloomberg May 28, 2020.
180 Fisher BL, Wrangham TK. NVIC Public Comment to National Vaccine Program Office (NVPO) on NVAC Draft Report on Federal Vaccine Safety System. June 6, 2011.
181 Breuninger K. CDC will reduce director Robert Redfield’s $375,000 salary. CNBC Apr. 30, 2018.
182 Federal Pay. Anthony S. Fauci, Medical Officer, NIH. Base Annual Salary (2018): $384,625.
183 Fisher BL. Wealthiest Profession in America: Medical Doctors. In Class & Race Profiling in the Vaccine Culture War. NVIC Newsletter July 17, 2017.
184 Crowe JE. Genetic predisposition for adverse events after vaccination. J Infect Dis 2007; 196(2): 176-177.
185 Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines. Evaluation of Biologic Mechanisms of Adverse Effects: Increased Susceptibility Chapter 3: Page 82. In: Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press 2012.
186 Soriano A, Nesher G, Shoenfeld Y. Predicting post-vaccination autoimmunity: Who might be at risk? Pharmacological Research 2015; 92: 18-22.
187 Lemaire D, Barbosa T, Rihet P. Coping with genetic diversity: the contribution of pathogen and human genomics to modern vaccinology. Braz J Med Biol Res 2012; 45(5): 376-385.
188 CDC. U.S. Deaths and Mortality. National Center for Health Statistics May 3, 2017.
189 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Which Countries Have the Highest and Lowest Cancer Rates? (U.S. is #5 among top 10 countries with highest cancer rates). Nov. 12 2019.
190 Statistica. Prevalence of diagnosed autoimmune conditions in selected countries as of 2019 (7 percent in U.S.). October 2019.
191 Donnelly G. Here’s Why Life Expectancy Dropped Again in the U.S. This Year. Fortune Magazine Feb. 9, 2018.
192 Howard J. Among 20 wealthy nations, US child mortality ranks worst, study finds. CNN Jan. 8, 2018.
193 Martin N, Montagne R. U.S. Has the Worst Rate of Maternal Deaths in the Developed World. National Public Radio May 12, 2017
194 National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Woolf SH, Aron L, editors. U.S. Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health. National Academies Press 2013
195 Vanderslott S, Dadonaite B, Max R. Vaccination. Our World in Data 2020.
196 CDC. Vaccination Coverage for Selected Vaccines and Exemption Rates Among Children in Kindergarten — United States, 2018–19 School Year. MMWR October 18, 2019; 68(41):905–912.
197 Hinman A, Orenstein WA, Schuchat A. Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Immunization and MMWR 1961-2011. MMWR Oct. 7, 2011; 60(04): 49-57.
198 Centers for Disease Control. About Chronic Diseases in America. Oct. 23, 2019.
199 CDC. Helping Children and Adolescents Manage Chronic Health Conditions. Sept. 10, 2019.
200 Fisher BL. Witnessing the Vaccine Injury Epidemic. Speech on National Mall Nov. 14, 2019. See References 84-108.
201 Libby P. Inflammatory mechanisms: the molecular basis of inflammation and disease. Nutr Rev 2007; 65(12 Pt2): S140-146.
202 ISLI Europe. Controlling inflammation to reduce chronic disease risk. Science Daily Aug. 7, 2015.
203 Centers for Disease Control. CDC Heal. About Chronic Diseases in America. Oct. 23, 2019; CDC. Helping Children and Adolescents Manage Chronic Health Conditions. Sept. 10, 2019.
204 Centers for Disease Control. CDC Heal. About Chronic Diseases in America. Oct. 23, 2019; CDC. Helping Children and Adolescents Manage Chronic Health Conditions. Sept. 10, 2019.
205 CDC. COVID-19 Alert No. 2: New ICD Code introduced for COVID-19 deaths. National Vital Statistics System Mar. 24, 2020.
206 DHHS. HHS FY2020 Budget in Brief. Mar. 19, 2019.
207 DHHS. ASPR 2020 Budget in Brief ($2.6B): Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority ($1.6B) - $256M for pandemic influenza. Feb. 13, 2020.
208 Lakoff A. Coronavirus: Strategic National Stockpile was ready, but not for this. The Conversation Apr. 3, 2020.
209 Rappeleye H, Lehren AW et al. “This system is doomed:” Doctors, nurses sound off in NBC News coronavirus survey. NBC Mar. 20, 2020.
210 Murphy B, Stein L. The coronavirus test that wasn’t: How federal health officials misled state scientists and derailed the best chance at containment. USA Today Mar. 27, 2020.
211 Fisher BL. WHO, Pharma, Gates & Government: Who’s Calling the Shots? National Vaccine Information Center Jan. 27, 2017.
212 Roos R. Novartis unveils US cell-based flu vaccine plant. CIDRAP Nov. 24, 2009.
213 Swaine J, O’Harrow R, Davis AC. Before the pandemic, Trump’s stockpile chief put the focus on biodefense. An old client benefited. Washington Post May 5, 2020.
214 Fauci AS. Risks From Vaccines Are “Almost Nonmeasurable.” Transcript of Interview with PBS April 27, 2010.
215 Fisher BL. Dr. Fauci, It’s Not Nice to Fool Congress About Vaccine Reactions. The Vaccine Reaction Feb. 28, 2019.
216 Gates B. Here’s how to make up for lost time on covid-19. Washington Post Mar. 31, 2020.
217 Lurie N, Saville M et al. Developing Covid-19 Vaccines at Pandemic Speed. NEJM Mar. 31, 2020.
218 Fisher BL. COVID-19 Meltdown & Big Pharma’s Big Money Win. The Vaccine Reaction Apr. 13, 2020.
219 Ibid. See DNA and mRNA Vaccines: Flying Blind into Uncharted Territory.
220 Fisher BL, Raines K Inovio COVID-19 Vaccine Uses Electricity to Drive DNA into Body Cells. The Vaccine Reaction Apr. 18, 2020.
221 ABNewswire. Scientists Test Potential Coronavirus Vaccine Straight on Humans Skipping Mice Trials. Benzinga Mar. 31, 2020.
222 Bailey R. Deliberately Infect Health Young People To Test Coronavirus Vaccines, Propose Bioethicists. Reason Magazine Mar. 27, 2020.
223 CDC. Vaccines for Your Children: Making the Vaccine Decision, Addressing Common Concerns. “Think of it this way: There is a 1 in a MILLION chance of getting a serious reaction to a vaccine.” National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases Aug. 5, 2019.
224 Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Inc. Electronic System for Public Health Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. AHRQ 2011.
225 Branswell H. Anthony Fauci on Covid-19 reopenings, vaccines and moving at ‘warp speed.’ CNBC June 1, 2020.
226 Jacobson v. Massachusetts. 197 U.S. 11(1905). Cornell University Law School.
227 Gostin LO. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA) Dec. 21, 2001 Draft for Discussion Prepared for the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to Assist the National Governors Association (NGA), National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), Association of State and Territorial Health Officers (ASTHO) and the National Association of County and City Health Officers (NACCHO). The Center for Law and the Public’s Health at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities. Dec. 21, 2001.
228 Supreme Court Upholds Sterilization of the Mentally Retarded – Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200, 475 Ct. 584, 71L, Ed. 1000 (1927). LSU Law Center.
229 Stern AM. STERILIZED in the name of Public Health. Am J Public Health 2005; 95(7): 1128-1138.
230 Fisher BL. Forced Vaccination: The Tragic Legacy of Jacobson v. Massachusetts. NVIC Newsletter Nov. 2, 2016.
231 National Vaccine Information Center. Cry for Vaccine Freedom Wall.
232 Fisher BL. The Disappearing Medical Exemption to Vaccination. NVIC Newsletter Sept. 17, 2019.
233 Cole JP, Swendiman JS. Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and Current Laws. Congressional Research Service May 21, 2014.
234 National Vaccine Information Center. NVIC’s Annual Reports on U.S. State Vaccine Legislation 2015-2017; 2018; 2019.
235 Fisher BL. Taking No Prisoners in the Vaccine Culture War. NVIC Newsletter Mar. 13, 2020.
Leave a comment
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked with an *